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Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399425
BuyFind

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundati...

9th Edition
Steven S. Zumdahl + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 9781337399425

Solutions

Chapter
Section
Chapter 13, Problem 1ALQ
Textbook Problem

s you increase the temperature of a gas in a sealed, rigid container, what happens to the density of the gas? Would the results be the same if you did the same experiment in a container with a movable piston at a constant external pressure? Explain.

Expert Solution
Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The affect on the density of the gas should be determined when the temperature of gas in a sealed, rigid container increases.

Whether the results will be the same when the same experiment in a container with a movable piston at a constant external pressure takes place should be explained.

Concept introduction:

The results can be explained using the ideal gas law.

The ideal gas equation:

PV = nRT

Where, V is the volume of the gas.

P is the pressure of the gas.

n is the number of moles of the gas.

R is the gas constant.

and T is the temperature.

Answer to Problem 1ALQ

In first experiment density of the gas will remain the same

In the second experiment density of the gas will decrease.

Explanation of Solution

The ideal gas equation

PV = nRT

or n/V = P/RT

Or, P/RT = d (where d is the density of the gas)

An increase in temperature will normally cause an increase in the volume. However, because the gas is enclosed in a rigid container the volume of the container cannot increase. Therefore, due to the increase in temperature, molecular momentum of air molecules also increases which further results in increase in the pressure inside container. Now, the density of a gas is the ratio of mass to its volume. If neither the mass nor the volume change as the can is heated, there will be no change in the density of the gas.

When the gas is heated in a container with a movable piston, the volume of the gas will also increase. Now, density is defined as d = m/V. Therefore, an increase in the volume will cause a decrease in the density of the gas.

Conclusion

Therefore, based on the ideal gas equation, when the gas is heated in a sealed container the density of the gas will remain constant.

However, when the gas is heated in a container with a movable piston, the density of the gas will decrease.

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Chapter 13 Solutions

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation
Ch. 13.6 - trong>Exercise 13.10 Consider a sample of hydrogen...Ch. 13.8 - u have learned the postulates of the kinetic...Ch. 13.10 - trong>Exercise 13.11 Calculate the volume of...Ch. 13.10 - at if STP was defined as normal room temperature...Ch. 13.10 - trong>Exercise 13.12 Ammonia is commonly used as a...Ch. 13 - s you increase the temperature of a gas in a...Ch. 13 - diagram in a chemistry book shows a magnified view...Ch. 13 - f you put a drinking straw in water place your...Ch. 13 - chemistry student relates the following story: I...Ch. 13 - hemicals X and Y {bath gases] react to form the...Ch. 13 - hich statement best explains why a hot-air balloon...Ch. 13 - f you release a helium balloon, it soars upward...Ch. 13 - f you have any two gases in different containers...Ch. 13 - sing postulates of the kinetic molecular theory,...Ch. 13 - Rationalize the following observations. Aerosol...Ch. 13 - Show how Boyle‘s law and Charles‘s law are special...Ch. 13 - Look at the demonstration discussed in Fig. 13.1....Ch. 13 - How does Dalton's law of partial pressures help us...Ch. 13 - Draw molecular—level views than show the...Ch. 13 - Explain how increasing the number of moles of gas...Ch. 13 - Explain how increasing the number of moles of gas...Ch. 13 - Gases are said to exert pressure. Provide a...Ch. 13 - Why is it incorrect to say that a sample of helium...Ch. 13 - We can use different units for pressure or volume,...Ch. 13 - Estimate the mass of air Ell normal conditions...Ch. 13 - You are holding two balloons of the same volume....Ch. 13 - You have helium gas in a two-bulbed container...Ch. 13 - Use the graphs below to answer the following...Ch. 13 - The introduction to this chapter says that "we...Ch. 13 - ow are the three states of matter similar, and how...Ch. 13 - igure 13.1 shows an experiment that can be used...Ch. 13 - escribe a simple mercury barometer. How is such a...Ch. 13 - f two gases that do not react with each other are...Ch. 13 - hat are the common units used to measure...Ch. 13 - ake the indicated pressure conversions. .45.2kPato...Ch. 13 - ake the indicated pressure conversions....Ch. 13 - ake the indicated pressure conversions....Ch. 13 - Make the indicated pressure conversions....Ch. 13 - Make the indicated pressure conversions....Ch. 13 - Convert the following pressures into pascals....Ch. 13 - Pretend that you‘re talking to a friend who has...Ch. 13 - In Fig. 13.4, when additional mercury is added to...Ch. 13 - The volume of a sample of ideal gas is inversely...Ch. 13 - A mathematical expression that summarizes Boyle's...Ch. 13 - For each of the following sets of pressure/volume...Ch. 13 - For each of the following sets of pressure/volume...Ch. 13 - For each of the following sets of pressure/volume...Ch. 13 - For each of the following sets of pressure/volume...Ch. 13 - What volume of gas would result if 225mLof neon...Ch. 13 - If the pressure on a 1.04Lsample of gas is doubled...Ch. 13 - 3. A sample of helium gas with a volume of...Ch. 13 - What pressure (in atmospheres) is required to...Ch. 13 - Pretend that you're talking to a friend who has...Ch. 13 - Figures 13.7and 13.8show volume/temperature data...Ch. 13 - The volume of a sample of ideal gas is...Ch. 13 - A mathematical expression that summarizes...Ch. 13 - A sample of gas in a balloon has an initial...Ch. 13 - Suppose a 375mLsample of neon gas at 78Cis cooled...Ch. 13 - For each of the following sets of...Ch. 13 - For each of the following sets of...Ch. 13 - For each of the following sets of...Ch. 13 - For each of the following sets of...Ch. 13 - Suppose 1.25Lof argon is cooled from 291Kto 78K....Ch. 13 - Suppose a 125mLsample of argon is cooled from...Ch. 13 - If a 375mLsample of neon gas is heated from 24Cto...Ch. 13 - A sample of gas has a volume of 127mLin a boiling...Ch. 13 - At conditions of constant temperature and...Ch. 13 - A mathematical expression that summarizes...Ch. 13 - If 0.00901mole of neon gas at a particular...Ch. 13 - If :math>1.04gof chlorine gas occupies a volume of...Ch. 13 - If 3.25moles of argon gas occupies a volume of...Ch. 13 - If 2.71gof argon gas occupies a volume of 4.21L,...Ch. 13 - What do we mean by an ideal gas?Ch. 13 - Under what conditions do real gases behave most...Ch. 13 - Show how Boyle's gas law can be derived from the...Ch. 13 - Show how Charles‘s gas aw can be derived from the...Ch. 13 - Given the following sets of values for three of...Ch. 13 - Given each of the following sets of values for an...Ch. 13 - What mass of neon gas is required to fill a...Ch. 13 - Determine the pressure in a 125Ltank containing...Ch. 13 - What volume will 2.04gof helium gas occupy al...Ch. 13 - At what temperature (inC)will a 5.00gsample of...Ch. 13 - What mass of helium gas is needed to pressurize, a...Ch. 13 - Suppose that a 1.25gsample of neon gas is confined...Ch. 13 - At what temperature will a 1.0gsample of neon gas...Ch. 13 - At what temperature would 4.25gof oxygen gas O2,...Ch. 13 - What pressure exists in a 200Ltank containing...Ch. 13 - Which flask will have the higher pressure a...Ch. 13 - Suppose a 24.3mLsample of helium gas at 25Cand...Ch. 13 - Suppose that 1.29gof argon gas is confined to a...Ch. 13 - What will the volume of the sample become if...Ch. 13 - The “Chemistry in Focus." segment Snacks Need...Ch. 13 - Explain why the measured properties of a mixture...Ch. 13 - We often collect small samples of gases in the...Ch. 13 - If a gaseous mixture is made of 2.41gof He and...Ch. 13 - Suppose than 1.28gof neon gas and 2.49gof argon...Ch. 13 - A tank contains a mixture of 52.5gof oxygen gas...Ch. 13 - What mass of new gas would but required to fill a...Ch. 13 - A sample of oxygen gas is saturated with water...Ch. 13 - Determine the partial pressure of each gas as...Ch. 13 - A 500mLsample of O2gas at 24Cwas prepared by...Ch. 13 - Small quantities of hydrogen gas can be prepared...Ch. 13 - What is a scientific law? What is a theory? How do...Ch. 13 - When is a scientific theory considered to be...Ch. 13 - What do we assume about the volume of the actual...Ch. 13 - Collisions of the molecules in a sample of gas...Ch. 13 - Temperature is a measure of the average of the...Ch. 13 - The kinetic molecular theory of gases suggests...Ch. 13 - How is the phenomenon of temperature explained on...Ch. 13 - Explain, in terms of the kinetic molecular theory,...Ch. 13 - What is the molar volume of a gas? Do all gases...Ch. 13 - What conditions are considered “standard...Ch. 13 - Calcium oxide can be used to “scrub" carbon...Ch. 13 - Consider the following reaction:...Ch. 13 - Consider the following reaction for the combustion...Ch. 13 - Although we: generally think of combustion...Ch. 13 - m>89. Ammonia and gaseous hydrogen chloride...Ch. 13 - Calcium carbide, CaC2, reacts with water to...Ch. 13 - Many transition metal salts are hydrates: they...Ch. 13 - If water is added to magnesium nitride, ammonia...Ch. 13 - What volume does a mixture of 14.2gof He and...Ch. 13 - Consider the following unbalanced chemical...Ch. 13 - A sample, of helium gas occupies a volume of...Ch. 13 - Consider the following chemical equation:...Ch. 13 - A mixture contains 5.00geach of O2,N2,CO2, and...Ch. 13 - Dinitrogen monoxide, N2O, reacts with propane,...Ch. 13 - Consider the following unbalanced chemical...Ch. 13 - elders commonly use an apparatus that contains a...Ch. 13 - uring the making of steel, iron(II) oxide is...Ch. 13 - onsider the following reaction:...Ch. 13 - hen doing any calculation involving gas samples,...Ch. 13 - widely Used weather instrument called a barometer...Ch. 13 - hich of the following statements is(are} true? At...Ch. 13 - onsider the flasks in the following diagrams. mg...Ch. 13 - or a mixture of gases in the same container. the...Ch. 13 - helium tank contains 25.2Lof helium m 8.40atm...Ch. 13 - s weather balloons rise from the earth’s surface...Ch. 13 - hen ammonium carbonate is heated, three gases are...Ch. 13 - arbon dioxide gas, in the dry slate, may be...Ch. 13 - arbon dioxide gas. saturated with water vapor, can...Ch. 13 - ulfur trioxide, 8O3is produced in enormous...Ch. 13 - ou have I mule 0f an ideal gas in a balloon. How...Ch. 13 - f 10.0gof liquid helium at 1.7Kis completely...Ch. 13 - f 0.214mole of argon gas occupies a volume of...Ch. 13 - onvert the following pressures into mm Hg....Ch. 13 - 2.50Lcontainer at 1.00atm and 48Cis filled with...Ch. 13 - or each of the following sets of pressure/volume...Ch. 13 - f the pressure on a 2.10104mLsample of gas is...Ch. 13 - particular balloon is designed by its manufacturer...Ch. 13 - sample of a gas at 0.780atm occupies a volume of...Ch. 13 - n expandable vessel contains 729mLof gas at 22C....Ch. 13 - f a gaseous mixture is made of 3.50gof He and...Ch. 13 - or each of the following sets of...Ch. 13 - f a 0.475Lsample of neon gas is heated from 27Cto...Ch. 13 - f 5.l2gof oxygen gas occupies a volume of 6.21Lat...Ch. 13 - ou have a gas in a container fitted with a piston,...Ch. 13 - iven each of the following sets of values for...Ch. 13 - iven each of the following sets of values for...Ch. 13 - hat is the pressure inside a 100Lflask containing...Ch. 13 - uppose two separate 100.0Ltanks are to be filled,...Ch. 13 - t what temperature does 4.00gof helium gas have a...Ch. 13 - 22gsample of neon gas exerts a pressure of 2.0atm...Ch. 13 - f 3.20gof nitrogen gas occupies a volume of...Ch. 13 - n aluminum can contains a Small amount of water...Ch. 13 - mixture at 33Ccontains H2at 325torr, N2at 475torr,...Ch. 13 - ou have two rigid gas cylinder. Gas cylinder A has...Ch. 13 - onsider the following chemical equation:...Ch. 13 - he following demonstration takes place in a...Ch. 13 - onsider the following unbalanced chemical...Ch. 13 - hen sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3(s), is heated,...Ch. 13 - hat volume does 35moles of N2occupy at STP?Ch. 13 - sample of oxygen gas has a volume of 125Lat 25Cand...Ch. 13 - onsider the flasks in the following diagrams. mg...Ch. 13 - hat volume of CO2measured at STP is produced when...Ch. 13 - oncentrated hydrogen peroxide solutions are...Ch. 13 - he “Chemistry in Focus." segment The Chemistry of...Ch. 13 - he “Chemistry in Focus" segment Bream...Ch. 13 - omplete the following table for an ideal gas. mg...Ch. 13 - glass vessel contains 28gof nitrogen gas. Assuming...Ch. 13 - steel cylinder contains 150.0 moles of argon gas...Ch. 13 - certain flexible weather balloon contains helium...Ch. 13 - large flask with a volume of 936mLis evacuated and...Ch. 13 - 20.0Lnickel container was charged with 0.859 atm...Ch. 13 - onsider the unbalanced chemical equation:...Ch. 13 - hich of the following statements is(are) true? If...

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