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Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry In Focus

7th Edition
Tro + 1 other
Publisher: Cengage Learning,
ISBN: 9781337399692
Chapter 13, Problem 9E
Textbook Problem
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What are the Brønsted-Lowry definitions of acids and bases?

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

Br o nsted-Lowry definition of acids and bases is to be explained.

Concept Introduction:

Br o nsted-Lowry theory is also called the Proton Theory of Acids and Bases, which was introduced by the Danish chemist Johannes Nicolas Br o nsted and the English chemist Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.

They stated that any compound that can transfer a proton to another compound is an acid and the compound that accepts that proton is called a base.

A Br o nsted-Lowry acid is a substance that donates protons and known as a proton donor. It donates protons in the form of hydrogen ions (H+).

A Br o nsted-Lowry base is a substance that readily accepts protons or hydrogen ions (H+) and is known as a proton acceptor.

Bases are slippery to touch, have bitter taste, react with acids to form salt and water and turn litmus paper blue.

Acids dissolve many metals, have sour taste, react with bases to form salt and water and turn litmus paper red.

The loss of proton (H+) from an acid forms its conjugate base and a base accepts a proton (H+) to forms its conjugate acid.

AcidConjugate base+H+Base+H+Conjugate acid

Explanation of Solution

Br o nsted-Lowry theory of acid and base took the Arrhenius definition one step further, that a substance does not need to be composed of hydrogen ions (H+) or hydroxyl ions (OH) in order to be classified as an acid or a base.

For example, consider the given equation:

HCl(aq) + NH3(aq)  NH4+ + Cl

Here, hydrochloric acid (HCl) donates a proton to ammonia (NH3), which accepts the proton to form a positively charged ammonium ion (

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Chapter 13 Solutions

Chemistry In Focus
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Ch. 13 - Why are bases not commonly found in foods?Ch. 13 - List four common laboratory bases and their uses.Ch. 13 - What are the Arrhenius definitions of acids and...Ch. 13 - What are the Brnsted-Lowry definitions of acids...Ch. 13 - What is the difference between a strong acid and a...Ch. 13 - The pH scale is a logarithmic scale. What is meant...Ch. 13 - What pH range is considered acidic? Basic?...Ch. 13 - What acid is responsible for the sour taste of...Ch. 13 - What is pickling? What acid is responsible for the...Ch. 13 - Where can you find acetic acid?Ch. 13 - What is aspirin? How does it work?Ch. 13 - List several common acids and where they might be...Ch. 13 - What acids are present in wines? What kind of...Ch. 13 - What is an alkaloid?Ch. 13 - What causes acid indigestion? List some common...Ch. 13 - How does an antacid work?Ch. 13 - Explain how a leavening agent works.Ch. 13 - Which pollutants are responsible for acid rain?...Ch. 13 - Why is rain acidic even in the absence of...Ch. 13 - How acidic is rain in the United States? Can this...Ch. 13 - Why can some lakes and soils tolerate acid rain...Ch. 13 - What are the effects of acid rain on the...Ch. 13 - What is being done to decrease the acidity of U.S....Ch. 13 - Write a chemical equation to show the...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical equation to show the...Ch. 13 - Identify the Brnsted-Lowry acid and base in each...Ch. 13 - Identify the Brnsted-Lowry acid and base in each...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical equation using Lewis structures...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical equation using Lewis structures...Ch. 13 - A chemist makes two solutions. One is a 0.01-MHCl...Ch. 13 - A chemist makes a 0.001-MNaOH solution and a...Ch. 13 - Give the pH that corresponds to each solution and...Ch. 13 - Give the pH that corresponds to each solution and...Ch. 13 - What is the [H3O+] in a solution with a pH of 4?Ch. 13 - What is the [H3O+] in a solution with a pH of 11?Ch. 13 - Write chemical reactions to show how each antacid...Ch. 13 - Write chemical reactions to show how each antacid...Ch. 13 - Suppose that the stomach contains...Ch. 13 - Suppose that 250.0 mL of a basic solution is 0.100...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical reaction to show how SO2 forms...Ch. 13 - Write a chemical reaction to show how NO2 forms...Ch. 13 - Write a short paragraph explaining why a person...Ch. 13 - Examine the household chemicals shelf at your...Ch. 13 - Determine from the following molecular view of a...Ch. 13 - Determine from the following molecular view of a...

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