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10th Edition

Ron Larson + 1 other

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 9781285057095

Chapter 3.7, Problem 44E

Textbook Problem

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Minimum Time When light waves traveling in a transparent medium strike the surface of a second transparent medium, they change direction. This change of direction is called refraction and is defined by Snell’'s Law of Refraction,

where

To determine

**To Prove:** The light rays that travel from point *P* to *Q* take the minimum amount of time to do so if the velocity in medium 1 is

**Given:**

The below given figure:

**Formula used:**

The Snell’s law of refraction:

For a function *f* that is twice differentiable on an open interval *I*, if *c*, then,

If *f* has relative minima at *c* if *f* has relative maxima at *c*.

**Proof:**

The provided information can be illustrated as below:

From the above figure:

Let this total time be *T*.

The total time is:

Differentiate *T* with respect to *x* and equate it to 0

Calculus

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Average Cost A business has a cost of C = 0.5x...Ch. 3.5 - Physics Newtons First Law of Motion and Einsteins...Ch. 3.5 - HOW DO YOU SEE IT? The graph shows the temperature...Ch. 3.5 - Modeling Data The average typing speeds S (in...Ch. 3.5 - Modeling Data A heat probe is attached to the heat...Ch. 3.5 - Using the Definition of Limits at Infinity The...Ch. 3.5 - Using the Definition of Limits at Infinity The...Ch. 3.5 - Using the Definition of Limits at Infinity...Ch. 3.5 - Using the Definition of Limits at Infinity...Ch. 3.5 - Proof In Exercises 63-66, use the definition of...Ch. 3.5 - Proof In Exercises 63-66, use the definition of...Ch. 3.5 - Proof In Exercises 6366, use the definition of...Ch. 3.5 - Proof In Exercises 6366, use the definition of...Ch. 3.5 - Distance A line with slope m passes through the...Ch. 3.5 - Distance A line with slope m passes through the...Ch. 3.5 - Proof Prove that if p(x) = anxn + + a1x + a0 and...Ch. 3.5 - Proof Use the definition of infinite limits at...Ch. 3.5 - True or False? In Exercises 103 and 104, determine...Ch. 3.5 - True or False? In Exercises 103 and 104, determine...Ch. 3.6 - Matching In Exercises 14, match the graph of f in...Ch. 3.6 - Matching In Exercises 14, match the graph of f in...Ch. 3.6 - Matching In Exercises 14, match the graph of f in...Ch. 3.6 - Matching In Exercises 14, match the graph of f in...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function InExercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function InExercises...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function Using Technology...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function Using Technology...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function Using Technology...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function Using Technology...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function Using Technology...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function Using Technology...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function Using Technology...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function Using Technology...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function Using Technology...Ch. 3.6 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function Using Technology...Ch. 3.6 - WRITING ABOUT CONCEPTS Using a Derivative Let...Ch. 3.6 - Using a Derivative Let f(0) = 3 and 2 f'(x) 4...Ch. 3.6 - Identifying Graphs In Exercises 51 and 52, the...Ch. 3.6 - Identifying Graphs In Exercises 51 and 52, the...Ch. 3.6 - Horizontal and Vertical Asymptotes In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Horizontal and Vertical Asymptotes In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Horizontal and Vertical Asymptotes In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Horizontal and Vertical Asymptotes In Exercises...Ch. 3.6 - Examining a Function In Exercises 69 and 70, use a...Ch. 3.6 - Examining a Function In Exercises 69 and 70, use a...Ch. 3.6 - Slant Asymptote In Exercises 7176, use a graphing...Ch. 3.6 - Slant Asymptote In Exercises 7176, use a graphing...Ch. 3.6 - Slant Asymptote In Exercises 7176, use a graphing...Ch. 3.6 - Slant Asymptote In Exercises 7176, use a graphing...Ch. 3.6 - Graphical Reasoning In Exercises 5356, use the...Ch. 3.6 - Graphical Reasoning In Exercises 5356, use the...Ch. 3.6 - Graphical Reasoning In Exercises 5356, use the...Ch. 3.6 - Graphical Reasoning In Exercises 5356, use the...Ch. 3.6 - Graphical Reasoning Consider the function...Ch. 3.6 - Graphical Reasoning Consider the function f(x) =...Ch. 3.6 - Graphical Reasoning Identify the real numbers...Ch. 3.6 - HOW DO YOU SEE IT? The graph of f is shown in the...Ch. 3.6 - Investigation Let P(x0,y0) be an arbitrary point...Ch. 3.6 - Investigation Consider the function f(x)=2xnx4+1...Ch. 3.6 - Graphical Reasoning Consider the function...Ch. 3.6 - Graphical Reasoning Consider the function...Ch. 3.6 - Slant Asymptotes In Exercises 91 and 92, the graph...Ch. 3.6 - Slant Asymptotes In Exercises 91 and 92, the graph...Ch. 3.6 - PUTNAM EXAM CHALLENGE Let f(x) be defined for axb....Ch. 3.6 - Think About It In Exercises 7982, create a...Ch. 3.6 - Think About It In Exercises 7982, create a...Ch. 3.6 - Think About It In Exercises 7982, create a...Ch. 3.6 - Think About It In Exercises 7982, create a...Ch. 3.7 - Numerical, Graphical, and Analytic Analysis Find...Ch. 3.7 - Numerical, Graphical, and Analytic Analysis An...Ch. 3.7 - Finding Numbers In Exercises 510, find two...Ch. 3.7 - Finding Numbers In Exercises 510, find two...Ch. 3.7 - Finding Numbers In Exercises 510, find two...Ch. 3.7 - Finding Numbers In Exercises 38, find two positive...Ch. 3.7 -
Finding Numbers In Exercises 5–10, find two...Ch. 3.7 - Finding Numbers In Exercises 510, find two...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Area In Exercises 11 and 12, find the...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Area In Exercises 11 and 12, find the...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Perimeter In Exercises 11 and 12, find the...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Perimeter In Exercises 13 and 14, find the...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Distance In Exercises 1316, find the point...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Distance In Exercises 1316, find the point...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Distance In Exercises 1316, find the point...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Distance In Exercises 1316, find the point...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Area A rectangular page is to contain 30...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Area A rectangular page is to contain 36...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Length A farmer plans to fence a...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Volume A rectangular solid (with a square...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Area A Norman window is constructed by...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Area A rectangle is bounded by the x- and...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Length and Minimum Area A right triangle...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Area Find the area of the largest...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Area A rectangle is bounded by the x-axis...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Area Find the dimensions of the largest...Ch. 3.7 - Numerical, Graphical, and Analytic Analysis An...Ch. 3.7 - Numerical, Graphical, and Analytic Analysis A...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Volume A rectangular package to be sent by...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Volume Rework Exercise 29 for a...Ch. 3.7 - EXPLORING CONCEPTS Surface Area and Volume A...Ch. 3.7 - EXPLORING CONCEPTS Area and Perimeter The...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Surface Area A solid is formed by...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Cost An industrial tank of the shape...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Area The sum of the perimeters of an...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Area Twenty feet of wire is to be used to...Ch. 3.7 - Beam Strength A wooden beam has a rectangular...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Length Two factories are located at the...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Cost An offshore oil well is 2 kilometers...Ch. 3.7 - Illumination A light source is located over the...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Time A man is in a boat 2 miles from the...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Time The conditions are the same as in...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Distance Sketch the graph of f(x)=22sinx...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Time When light waves traveling in a...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Volume A sector with central angle is cut...Ch. 3.7 - Numerical, Graphical, and Analytic Analysis The...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Profit Assume that the amount of money...Ch. 3.7 - HOW DO YOU SEE IT? The graph shows the profit P...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Distance In Exercises 49-51, consider a...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Distance In Exercises 49-51, consider a...Ch. 3.7 - Minimum Distance In Exercises 49-51, consider a...Ch. 3.7 - Maximum Area Consider a symmetric cross inscribed...Ch. 3.7 - PUTNAM EXAM CHALLENGE Find, with explanation, the...Ch. 3.7 - PUTNAM EXAM CHALLENGE Find the minimum value of...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method In Exercises 14, complete...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method In Exercises 3-6, calculate...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newtons Method In Exercises 3-6, calculate...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newtons Method In Exercises 3-6, calculate...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method In Exercises 7-16, use...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method In Exercises 7-16, use...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method In Exercises 7-16, use...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method In Exercises 7-16, use...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method In Exercises 7-16, use...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method In Exercises 7-16, use...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method In Exercises 7-16, use...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method In Exercises 7-16, use...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method In Exercises 7-16, use...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method In Exercises 7-16, use...Ch. 3.8 - Points of Intersection In Exercises 17-20, apply...Ch. 3.8 - Points of Intersection In Exercises 17-20, apply...Ch. 3.8 - Points of Intersection In Exercises 17-20, apply...Ch. 3.8 - Points of Intersection In Exercises 17-20, apply...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method Consider the function...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newton's Method Repeat the steps in Exercise...Ch. 3.8 - Failure of Newton's Method In Exercises 23 and 24,...Ch. 3.8 - Failure of Newton's Method In Exercises 23 and 24,...Ch. 3.8 - Fixed Point In Exercises 25-26, approximate the...Ch. 3.8 - Fixed Point In Exercises 25 and 26, approximate...Ch. 3.8 - Approximating Reciprocals Use Newtons Method to...Ch. 3.8 - Approximating Reciprocals Use the result of...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newtons MethodExercises 2931 present...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newtons Method Exercises 29-31 present...Ch. 3.8 - Using Newtons Method Exercises 29-31 present...Ch. 3.8 - HOW DO YOU SEE IT? For what value(s) will Newtons...Ch. 3.8 - Mechanics Rule The Mechanics Rule for...Ch. 3.8 - Approximating Radicals (a) Use Newtons Method and...Ch. 3.8 - Newton's Method In your own words and using a...Ch. 3.8 - Crime The total number of arrests T (in thousands)...Ch. 3.8 - True or False? In Exercises 37-40, determine...Ch. 3.8 - True or False? In Exercises 3740, determine...Ch. 3.8 - True or False? In Exercises 3740, determine...Ch. 3.8 - True or False? In Exercises 3538, determine...Ch. 3.8 - Tangent Lines The graph of f(x)=sinx has...Ch. 3.8 - Point of Tangency The graph of f(x)=cosx and a...Ch. 3.9 - Using a Tangent Line Approximation In Exercises...Ch. 3.9 - Using a Tangent Line Approximation In Exercises...Ch. 3.9 - Using a Tangent Line Approximation In Exercises...Ch. 3.9 - Using a Tangent Line Approximation In Exercises...Ch. 3.9 - Using a Tangent Line Approximation In Exercises...Ch. 3.9 - Using a Tangent Line Approximation In Exercises...Ch. 3.9 - Comparing y and dy In Exercises 710, use the...Ch. 3.9 - Comparing y and dy In Exercises 1318, use the...Ch. 3.9 - Comparing y and dy In Exercises 1318, use the...Ch. 3.9 - Comparing y and dy In Exercises 1318, use the...Ch. 3.9 - Finding a Differential In Exercises 1928, find the...Ch. 3.9 - Finding a Differential In Exercises 1928, find the...Ch. 3.9 - Finding a Differential In Exercises 1928, find the...Ch. 3.9 - Finding a Differential In Exercises 19-28, find...Ch. 3.9 - Finding a Differential In Exercises 1928, find the...Ch. 3.9 - Finding a Differential In Exercises 1928, find the...Ch. 3.9 - Finding a Differential In Exercises 1928, find the...Ch. 3.9 - Finding a Differential In Exercises 1928, find the...Ch. 3.9 - Finding a Differential In Exercises 19-28, find...Ch. 3.9 - Finding a Differential In Exercises 19-28, find...Ch. 3.9 - Using Differentials In Exercises 29 and 30, use...Ch. 3.9 - Using Differentials In Exercises 29 and 30, use...Ch. 3.9 - Using Differentials In Exercises 31 and 32, use...Ch. 3.9 - Using Differentials In Exercises 31 and 32, use...Ch. 3.9 - Area The measurement of the side of a square floor...Ch. 3.9 - Area The measurement of the radius of a circle is...Ch. 3.9 - Area The measurements of the base and altitude of...Ch. 3.9 - Circumference The measurement of the circumference...Ch. 3.9 - Volume and Surface Area The measurement of the...Ch. 3.9 - Volume and Surface Area The radius of a spherical...Ch. 3.9 - Stopping Distance The total stopping distance T of...Ch. 3.9 - HOW DO YOU SEE IT? 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In Exercises 4953, determine...Ch. 3.9 - True or False? In Exercises 4953, determine...Ch. 3.9 - True or False? 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Finding Points of Inflection In Exercises 3742,...Ch. 3 - Finding Points of Inflection In Exercises 3742,...Ch. 3 - Finding Points of Inflection In Exercises 3742,...Ch. 3 - Finding Points of Inflection In Exercises 3742,...Ch. 3 - Finding Points of Inflection In Exercises 3742,...Ch. 3 - Using the Second Derivative Test In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Using the Second Derivative Test In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Using the Second Derivative Test In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Using the Second Derivative Test In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Using the Second Derivative Test In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Using the Second Derivative Test In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Think About It In Exercises 49 and 50, sketch the...Ch. 3 - Think About It In Exercises 49 and 50, sketch the...Ch. 3 - Writing A newspaper headline states that "The rate...Ch. 3 - Inventory Cost The cost of inventory C depends on...Ch. 3 - Modeling Data Outlays for national defense D (in...Ch. 3 - Modeling Data The manager of a store recorded the...Ch. 3 - Finding a Limit In Exercises 5564, find the limit,...Ch. 3 - Finding a Limit In Exercises 5564, find the limit,...Ch. 3 - Finding a Limit In Exercises 5362, find the limit....Ch. 3 - Finding a Limit In Exercises 5362, find the limit....Ch. 3 - Finding a Limit In Exercises 5564, find the limit,...Ch. 3 - Finding a Limit In Exercises 5564, find the limit,...Ch. 3 - Finding a Limit In Exercises 5564, find the limit,...Ch. 3 - Finding a Limit In Exercises 5564, find the limit,...Ch. 3 - Finding a Limit In Exercises 55-64, find the...Ch. 3 - Finding a Limit In Exercises 55-64, find the...Ch. 3 - Horizontal Asymptotes In Exercises 6366, use a...Ch. 3 - Finding Horizontal Asymptotes Using Technology In...Ch. 3 - Horizontal Asymptotes In Exercises 6366, use a...Ch. 3 - Horizontal Asymptotes In Exercises 6366, use a...Ch. 3 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Analyzing the Graph of a Function In Exercises...Ch. 3 - Maximum Area A rancher has 400 feet of fencing...Ch. 3 - Maximum Area Find the dimensions of the rectangle...Ch. 3 - Minimum Length A right triangle in the first...Ch. 3 - Minimum Length The wall of a building is to be...Ch. 3 - Maximum Length Find the length of the longest pipe...Ch. 3 - Maximum Length A hallway of width 6 feet meets a...Ch. 3 - Maximum Volume Find the volume of the largest...Ch. 3 - Maximum Volume Find the volume of the largest...Ch. 3 - Using Newtons Method In Exercises 89-92, use...Ch. 3 - Using Newtons Method In Exercises 89-92, use...Ch. 3 - Using Newtons Method In Exercises 89-92, use...Ch. 3 - Using Newtons Method In Exercises 89-92, use...Ch. 3 - Points of Intersection In Exercises 93 and 94,...Ch. 3 - Points of Intersection In Exercises 93 and 94,...Ch. 3 - Comparing y and dy In Exercises 91 and 92, use the...Ch. 3 - Comparing y and dy In Exercises 91 and 92, use the...Ch. 3 - Finding a Differential In Exercises 97 and 98,...Ch. 3 - Finding a Differential In Exercises 97 and 98,...Ch. 3 - Volume and Surface Area The radius of a sphere is...Ch. 3 - Demand Function A company finds that the demand...Ch. 3 - Relative Extrema Graph the fourth-degree...Ch. 3 - Relative Extrema (a) Graph the fourth-degree...Ch. 3 - Relative Minimum Let f(x)=cx+x2 Determine all...Ch. 3 - Points of Inflection (a) Let f(x)=ax2+bx+c,a0, be...Ch. 3 - Extended Mean Value Theorem Prove the Extended...Ch. 3 - Illumination The amount of illumination of a...Ch. 3 - Minimum Distance Consider a room in the shape of a...Ch. 3 - Areas of Triangles The line joining P and Q...Ch. 3 - Mean Value Theorem Determine the values a, b, and...Ch. 3 - Mean Value Theorem Determine the values a. b, c....Ch. 3 - Proof Let f and g be functions that are continuous...Ch. 3 - Proof (a) Prove that limxx2= (b) Prove that...Ch. 3 - Tangent Lines Find the point on the graph of...Ch. 3 - Stopping Distance The police department must...Ch. 3 - Darbouxs Theorem Prove Darbouxs Theorem: Let f be...Ch. 3 - Maximum Area The figures show a rectangle, a...Ch. 3 - Point of Inflection Show that the cubic polynomial...Ch. 3 - Minimum Length A legal-sized sheet of paper (8.5...Ch. 3 - Quadratic Approximation The polynomial...

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Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals

Determining Convergence or Divergence In Exercises 27-34, test for convergence or divergence, using each test a...

Calculus: Early Transcendental Functions (MindTap Course List)

Finding the Sum of a Series In Exercises 97-102, find the sum of the convergent series by using a well-known fu...

Calculus of a Single Variable

A3,1, B5,9, and C11,3 are the vertices of ABC. a Find the length of the median from B to AC-. b Find the slope ...

Elementary Geometry for College Students

In Exercises 41-44, let U denotes the set of employees at Universal Life Insurance Company, and let T={xUxdrink...

Finite Mathematics for the Managerial, Life, and Social Sciences

True or False: f(a)=lima0f(a+h)f(a)h.

Study Guide for Stewart's Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals, 8th

Principal Unit Normal Vector In what direction does die principal unit normal vector point?

Multivariable Calculus

Let C be the line from (1, 0) to (0, 1) and F(x, y) = yi + (x + y)j. Then
1
2
4

Study Guide for Stewart's Multivariable Calculus, 8th

Briefly identify the relative strengths and weaknesses of open-ended and restricted questions.

Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (MindTap Course List)

The authors of the paper Playing by the Rules: Parental Mediation of Video Game Play (Journal of Family Issues2...

Introduction To Statistics And Data Analysis

Use a graphing calculator to find the inverse of each matrix. [1110.510.5111.5]

College Algebra (MindTap Course List)

Show the five-number summary and the box plot for the following data: 5, 15, 18, 10, 8, 12, 16, 10, 6.

STATISTICS F/BUSINESS+ECONOMICS-TEXT

The following data were used in a regression study. Observation xi yi Observation xi yi 1 2 4 6 7 6 2 3 5 7 7 9...

Statistics for Business & Economics, Revised (MindTap Course List)

For a two-factor research study with two levels for factor A and four levels for factor B. how many participant...

Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (MindTap Course List)

Compute 52.7513.45+9.326.412.920.98 . Round your answer to 2 decimal places.

Mathematics For Machine Technology

ReminderRound all answers to two decimal places unless otherwise indicated. Borrowing MoneySuppose that you bor...

Functions and Change: A Modeling Approach to College Algebra (MindTap Course List)

House Prices. Spring is a peak time for selling houses. The file SpringHouses contains the selling price, numbe...

Essentials Of Statistics For Business & Economics

a. How many integers are there from 10 through 99? b. How many odd integers are there from 10 through 99? c. Ho...

Discrete Mathematics With Applications

In Exercises 1114, cards are dealt from a full deck of 52. Find the probabilities of the given events. a. The f...

Mathematics: A Practical Odyssey