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Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079

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Section
BuyFindarrow_forward

Organic And Biological Chemistry

7th Edition
STOKER + 1 other
ISBN: 9781305081079
Textbook Problem

How many acidic hydrogen atoms are present in each of the following carboxylic acids?

  1. a. Acetic acid
  2. b. Benzoic acid
  3. c. Propanoic acid
  4. d. Glutaric acid

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The number of acidic hydrogen atoms present in acetic acid has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

The name of the carboxylic acid itself implies that it is acidic.  Addition of carboxylic acid to water results in ionization.  Hydrogen ion transfer occurs from carboxylic acid to water and hydronium ion is formed.  Carboxylate ion is also formed due to the loss of hydrogen ion from carboxylic acid.

Carboxylate ion is the negative ion which is formed when one or more acidic protons are lost from carboxylic acid.

Number of acidic hydrogen atoms present in the carboxylic acid can be found by identifying the number of carboxyl groups present.  Each carboxyl group gives a hydrogen atom.

Explanation

Carboxylic acids undergo ionization in water to form hydronium ion and carboxylate ion.  The extent of ionization in pure carboxylic acid alone is less than 5 percent.  This means that the equilibrium lies far left as shown below,

Given compound name is acetic acid...

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The number of acidic hydrogen atoms present in benzoic acid has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

The name of the carboxylic acid itself implies that it is acidic.  Addition of carboxylic acid to water results in ionization.  Hydrogen ion transfer occurs from carboxylic acid to water and hydronium ion is formed.  Carboxylate ion is also formed due to the loss of hydrogen ion from carboxylic acid.

Carboxylate ion is the negative ion which is formed when one or more acidic protons are lost from carboxylic acid.

Number of acidic hydrogen atoms present in the carboxylic acid can be found by identifying the number of carboxyl groups present.  Each carboxyl group gives a hydrogen atom.

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The number of acidic hydrogen atoms present in propanoic acid has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

The name of the carboxylic acid itself implies that it is acidic.  Addition of carboxylic acid to water results in ionization.  Hydrogen ion transfer occurs from carboxylic acid to water and hydronium ion is formed.  Carboxylate ion is also formed due to the loss of hydrogen ion from carboxylic acid.

Carboxylate ion is the negative ion which is formed when one or more acidic protons are lost from carboxylic acid.

Number of acidic hydrogen atoms present in the carboxylic acid can be found by identifying the number of carboxyl groups present.  Each carboxyl group gives a hydrogen atom.

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The number of acidic hydrogen atoms present in glutaric acid has to be given.

Concept Introduction:

The name of the carboxylic acid itself implies that it is acidic.  Addition of carboxylic acid to water results in ionization.  Hydrogen ion transfer occurs from carboxylic acid to water and hydronium ion is formed.  Carboxylate ion is also formed due to the loss of hydrogen ion from carboxylic acid.

Carboxylate ion is the negative ion which is formed when one or more acidic protons are lost from carboxylic acid.

Number of acidic hydrogen atoms present in the carboxylic acid can be found by identifying the number of carboxyl groups present.  Each carboxyl group gives a hydrogen atom.

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