Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074



Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Which of the following elements has the greatest difference between its first and second ionization energies: C, Li, N, Be? Explain your answer.

Interpretation Introduction


The highest ionization energy should be explain given the periodic elements of Carbon (C), Lithium (Li), Nitrogen (N) and Beryllium (Be).

 Concept Introduction:

Ionization energy (IE): The ionization energy is the required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase.

General formula of ionization energy = Atom in the ground state(g)Atom+(g)+eΔU=Ionizationenergy(IE)

As predicted by coulomb’s law, energy must be supplied to overcome the attraction between an electron and the nucleus and to separate the electron from the atom. Thus ionization energies always have positive values. An electron father from the nucleus generally has smaller ionization energy and electron closer to the nucleus has larger ionization energy. 

Increase and decrease electro negativity: The less vacancy electrons an atoms has the least it will gain of electrons. Moreover the electron affinity decrease down the groups and from right to left across the periods on the periodic table, the reason is electrons are placed in a higher energy level far from the nucleus thus a decrease from its pull.

  • Given (Li) atom has loss of one electron in outermost shells,

First ionization energy of Lithium (Li), IE1 = 513 kJ/mol  

AtomicnumberofLithium(Li)=31.First ionzation energy(IE1)Li[1s22s12p0]Li+[1s22s02p0]+e-[lossofoneelectrons]

Second ionization energy of Lithium (Li), IE2 = 7298 kJ/mol  

AtomicnumberofLithium(Li)=31.First ionzation energy(IE2)Li+[1s22s02p0]Li2+[1s12s02p0]+e-[lossofoneelectronsin 1sorbital]

  • Ionization energy of carbon atoms.

First ionization energy of Carbon (C), IE1 = 1086 kJ/mol  

   AtomicnumberofCarbon(C)=61.First ionzation energy(IE1)C[1s22s22p2]C+[1s22s22p1]+e-[lossofoneelectrons]

 Second ionization energy of Carbon (C), IE2 = 2352 kJ/mol  

 AtomicnumberofCarbon(C)=61.Second ionzation energy(IE2)C+[1s22s22p1]C2+[1s22s22p2]+e-[lossofoneelectronsin (2p) shells]

  • Let is consider the ionization energy of Nitrogen (N) atoms

First ionization energy of Nitrogen (N), IE1 = 1408 kJ/mol  


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