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Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074

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BuyFindarrow_forward

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

10th Edition
John C. Kotz + 3 others
ISBN: 9781337399074
Textbook Problem

Determine the formal charge on each atom in the following molecules and ions:

  1. (a) NO2+
  2. (b) NO2
  3. (c) NF3
  4. (d) HNO3

(a)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The formal charge for each atom present in given ion should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Lewis structure: The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

A formal charge (FC) is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electro negativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

Formal charge of an atom can be determined by the following given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(numberofvalenceelectroninatom)[12(numberofbondingelectrons)+(numberofnon-bondingelectrons)]

Explanation

The formal charge for atom in a molecule or ion is calculated based on the Lewis structure of the molecule or ion. The Lewis structure for the given molecule is as follows,

Given: NO2+

Formal charge of nitrogen and Oxygen can be determined by the given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(numberofvalenceelectroninatom)[(numberofnon-bondingelectrons)+1

(b)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The formal charge for each atom present in given ion should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Lewis structure: The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

A formal charge (FC) is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electro negativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

Formal charge of an atom can be determined by the following given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(numberofvalenceelectroninatom)[12(numberofbondingelectrons)+(numberofnon-bondingelectrons)]

(c)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The formal charge for each atom present in given ion should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Lewis structure: The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

A formal charge (FC) is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electro negativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

Formal charge of an atom can be determined by the following given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(numberofvalenceelectroninatom)[12(numberofbondingelectrons)+(numberofnon-bondingelectrons)]

(d)

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation: The formal charge for each atom present in given ion should be determined.

Concept Introduction:

Lewis structure: The Lewis structure is based on the concept of the octet rule so that the electrons shared in each atom should have 8 electrons in its outer shell.

Lewis structure for any molecule is drawn by using the following steps,

First the skeletal structure for the given molecule is drawn then the total number of valence electrons for all atoms present in the molecule is determined

The next step is to subtract the electrons present in the total number of bonds present in the skeletal structure of the molecule with the total valence electrons such that considering each bond contains two electrons with it.

Finally, the electrons which got after subtractions have to be equally distributed such that each atom contains eight electrons in its valence shell.

A formal charge (FC) is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, irrespective of relative electro negativity by thinking that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally among atoms.

Formal charge of an atom can be determined by the following given formula.

Formalcharge(FC)=(numberofvalenceelectroninatom)[12(numberofbondingelectrons)+(numberofnon-bondingelectrons)]

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