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General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
ISBN: 9781305580343

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BuyFindarrow_forward

General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
ISBN: 9781305580343
Textbook Problem

Use bond enthalpies (Table 9.5) to estimate ΔH for the following gas-phase reaction.

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This is called an “addition” reaction, because a compound (HBr) is added across the double bond.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The ΔH for the given gas-phase reaction has to be estimated using bond enthalpy.

Concept introduction:

Bond enthalpy:

The measure of stability of molecule is bond enthalpy.  The change in enthalpy is related in breaking a specific bond of 1 mole of gaseous molecule.  In solids and liquids bond enthalpies are affected by neighboring molecules.  There is possibility to predict the enthalpy of reaction using the average bond enthalpies.  Energy is always needed for the breaking of chemical bonds and release of energy always takes place with the formation of chemical bonds.  The enthalpy of reaction is estimated by counting the total number of broken bonds and bonds formed in a reaction.

The enthalpy of reaction in gas phase is given by,

images

Bond length: bond order and bond length is inversely proportional to each other.  Bond length increases means the bond order decreases.

Explanation

Let us consider the reaction C=C is converted into C-C .  This is addition reaction.  Two new bonds formed like C-H and C-Br at the same time H-Br are broken.

ΔHBE(C=C)+BE(H-Br)-BE(C-C)

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