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General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
ISBN: 9781305580343

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BuyFindarrow_forward

General Chemistry - Standalone boo...

11th Edition
Steven D. Gammon + 7 others
ISBN: 9781305580343
Textbook Problem

A commercial process for preparing ethanol (ethyl alcohol), C2H5OH, consists of passing ethylene gas. C2H4, and steam over an acid catalyst (to speed up the reaction). The gas-phase reaction is

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Use bond enthalpies (Table 9.5) to estimate the enthalpy change for this reaction when 37.0 g of ethyl alcohol is produced.

Interpretation Introduction

Interpretation:

The enthalpy change for 37.0 g of Ethyl alcohol is produced has to be calculated.

Concept introduction:

Bond enthalpy:

The measure of stability of molecule is bond enthalpy.  The change in enthalpy is related in breaking a specific bond of 1 mole of gaseous molecule. In solids and liquids bond enthalpies are affected by neighboring molecules.  There is possibility to predict the enthalpy of reaction using the average bond enthalpies.  Energy is always needed for the breaking of chemical bonds and release of energy always takes place with the formation of chemical bonds.  The enthalpy of reaction is estimated by counting the total number of broken bonds and bonds formed in a reaction.

The enthalpy of reaction in gas phase is given by,

images

Explanation

Let us consider the reaction C=C bond and O-H bond are converted into C-C bond

This is addition reaction.  Two new bonds formed like C-C and C-OH

ΔHBE(C=C)+BE(O-H)-BE(C-C)-BE(C-O)-BE(C-H)

=[(614+463)-(348+358<

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