Simplify each expression:
a) 

c) 

b) 

d) 

a)
To find:
The simplified form of the given expression.
1) Perform the operations inside the symbols of inclusion (parentheses, brackets, and braces) and above and below each fraction bar. Start with the innermost inclusion symbol.
2) Perform all multiplications and divisions in the order in which they appear from left to right.
3) Perform all additions and subtractions in the order in which they appear from left to right.
Calculation:
Consider,
Perform all additions and subtractions in numerator and denominator
b)
To find:
The simplified form of the given expression.
c)
To find:
The simplified form of the given expression.
d)
To find:
The simplified form of the given expression.
Calculus: Early Transcendentals
Calculus: An Applied Approach (MindTap Course List)
Mathematical Applications for the Management, Life, and Social Sciences
Statistics for The Behavioral Sciences (MindTap Course List)
Finite Mathematics
Precalculus: Mathematics for Calculus (Standalone Book)
Essentials of Statistics for The Behavioral Sciences (MindTap Course List)
Applied Calculus for the Managerial, Life, and Social Sciences: A Brief Approach
Calculus: Early Transcendental Functions
Calculus (MindTap Course List)
Mathematical Excursions (MindTap Course List)
Calculus (MindTap Course List)
Understanding Basic Statistics
Finite Mathematics and Applied Calculus (MindTap Course List)
Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals, Volume I
Elementary Technical Mathematics
Essentials Of Statistics
Intermediate Algebra
Applied Calculus
Probability and Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences
Multivariable Calculus
Single Variable Calculus
Elements Of Modern Algebra
Trigonometry (MindTap Course List)
Contemporary Mathematics for Business & Consumers
Calculus of a Single Variable
Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals
Calculus: Early Transcendental Functions (MindTap Course List)
Finite Mathematics for the Managerial, Life, and Social Sciences
Study Guide for Stewart's Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals, 8th
Study Guide for Stewart's Multivariable Calculus, 8th