Simplify each expression:
a) 

c) 

b) 

d) 

a)
To find:
The simplified form of the given expression.
1) Perform the operations inside the symbols of inclusion (parentheses, brackets, and braces) and above and below each fraction bar. Start with the innermost inclusion symbol.
2) Perform all multiplications and divisions in the order in which they appear from left to right.
3) Perform all additions and subtractions in the order in which they appear from left to right.
Calculation:
Consider,
Perform all additions and subtractions in numerator and denominator
b)
To find:
The simplified form of the given expression.
c)
To find:
The simplified form of the given expression.
d)
To find:
The simplified form of the given expression.
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