A Comparison of Tuberculosis Control Between Australia and Vietnam

1902 Words 8 Pages
1.0 Introduction
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. There are three types of TB-related conditions: latent TB infection, reactivation of TB and disseminated disease. It has been reported that one third of the world’s population is infected with M. tuberculosis1. Australia is among the countries that have the lowest rate of TB cases while Vietnam is among those that have the highest rate. TB infection is air-borne and can be tested by tuberculin skin test, TB blood test and x-ray. Drugs are used in medication to treat TB infection and disease. TB can be prevented by national control programs and vaccines. This paper aims to compare and contrast tuberculosis control in Australia
…show more content…
Patients with suppressed immune system due to health problems such as severe kidney disease, diabetes, or low body weight have 4 to 16 times greater risk than other patients4. HIV infected patients have the highest risk of developing TB disease as the annual risk of developing active TB is 10%3.

2.1 Transmission
TB infection is transmitted through air by droplet nuclei that contain M. tuberculosis complex. Droplets are expelled when infected patients exhale, cough or sneeze. When the tiny bacilli are inhaled, they reach alveoli at lungs and start to multiply. TB infection may develop TB disease as bacilli can pass through blood, lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Miliary or disseminated disease occurs when large numbers of M.tuberculosis attack other organs and tissues such as bones, kidney, female reproductive system and nervous system. World Health Organization1 reported that South-East Asia Region has the highest TB incidence rate (3.2 million cases) in the world, while The Americas region has the lowest rate (280000 cases). Approximately 1.3 million of people died from TB in 2008 and the highest mortality was in South-East Asia Region1. Table 1 shows that Australia is one of the countries that has the lowest TB cases; in 2007, 1300 cases were reported and the mortality rate was 100 per year5; in 2008, 1400 cases were reported1. Table 2 shows that Vietnam has much higher number of cases in
Open Document