A Cross Sectional Study For Patients With Diabetes Mellitus ( Dm )

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Patients and methods A cross-sectional study included 100 SLE patients fulfilling the American college of Rheumatology (ACR) revised classification criteria for SLE(Hochberg, 1997). All patients were recruited randomly from the Rheumatology outpatient clinic and the inpatient ward of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology department, Ain Shams University hospital. Exclusion Criteria: - SLE patients age < 18 years. - SLE patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) Ethical considerations: The nature of the present study was explained to all participants. The laboratory and radiological procedures represent standard care and pose no ethical conflicts. Informed consent was obtained from all participants All patients were subjected to the following: …show more content…

Twelve systems are assessed by 41 items for damage, which is defined as non-reversible change that is not related to active inflammation and that has occurred since the onset of lupus, ascertained by clinical assessment and present for at least 6 months. If evidence of damage is noted for a particular item, it is given a score of 1. Some items may score 2 points if they occur more than once, so that the maximum possible score is 47. Scores can only increase with time, but scores rarely reach over 12 (see details in the appendix, page…). V- Laboratory investigations: 1- Complete Blood Picture (CBC).by coulter (Britten et al., 1969). 2- Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR).in first hour by Westergren method (Hoffmin et al., 2004). 3- Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) by calorimetric method (Thomas, 1998). 4- Urine analysis. (Ruggenenti et al., 1998). 5- Protein/creatinine ratio(Ruggenenti et al., 1998). VI- Tuberculin skin test (TST) The TST was performed by injecting 0.1 ml of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) into the inner surface of the forearm. The injection was made with a tuberculin syringe, with the needle bevel facing upward injecting intradermally to produce a pale elevation of the skin (a wheal) 6 to 10 mm in diameter. The skin test reaction was read between 48 and 72 hours after administration. The reaction was measured in millimeters of the

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