A Short Note On The Common Foodborne Viruses

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Pathophysiology Noroviruses are one of the most common foodborne viruses because of their high degree of communicability. These strains of viruses are also the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis, or infection of the stomach and intestines, in the United States. For this reason, Noroviruses are often referred to as stomach flu or viral gastroenteritis. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) classifies the various species, strains, and serotypes of Norovirus belonging to the Calicviridae family (Knechtges, 2011). The Calicivirdae family is characterized by a single-stranded RNA enclosed in an icosahedral-shaped capsid and does not have an envelope. Naturally these viruses’ hosts are vertebrae. In confined spaces,…show more content…
Noroviruses may cause infection with less than 10 virions (ID50 = 10 virions); therefore has the capability of causing disease in 50% of exposed individuals (Khan, 2015). Moreover, Norovisues bind polymorphic histoblood group antigens (HBGAs) that putatively serve as receptors for infection. Different HBGAs serve as preferable sights: Genogroup I viruses typically bind to blood group A and O; whereas, Genogroup II viruses typically bind to A and B antigens. They are also extremely stable in the environment. These viruses resist freezing temperatures, heat up to 60°C, disinfection with chlorine, acidic conditions, vinegar, alcohol, antiseptic hand solutions, and high sugar concentrations. The incubation period may be as soon as 12-48 hours (U.S. Department of Health & Human Service, n.d.). Symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, stomach pain, headache, fever, chills, and muscle aches. Diarrhea may be watery and non-bloody and is more common in adults. It is induced by D-xylose and fat malabsorption, with enzymatic dysfunction observed at the brush border, along with leak flux and anion secretion (Khan, 2015). Children typically experience more vomiting. Vomitting is more related to virus-mediated changes in gastric motility and delayed gastric emptying. Duration of illness typically lasts 1-3 days for an acute case. More serious outbreaks among young children, older adults, and hospitalized patients may last up to six days. However, viral
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