Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Essay

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders that develops in children and becomes apparent in the preschool, early school years and continue through adolescence and adulthood. It is one of the rising public health concerns which is characterized by inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The world wide prevalence rate was estimated as 5.29 %. (Polanczyk 2007). Prevalent rates are higher at 12 years. It also affects school performance and interpersonal relationship. (Hokenberry 2006).
ADHD affects an estimated 3% to 5% of all school aged children. The ratio of boys to girls ranges from 3:1 in non clinical settings to 9: 1 in clinical settings. (Gaut and Carlson …show more content…

The complex etiology of ADHD most likely involves genetic and environmental factors. Studies have found strong genetic influences and familial transmission. Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies have identified differences in brain function among ADHD clients. Other factors for ADHD includes family history of ADHD, Male relatives with antisocial personality disorder or alcoholism, female relatives with somatisation disorder, lower socioeconomic status, Marital or family discord, including divorce, neglect, abuse, or parental deprivation, low birth weight and various kinds of brain insult.
ADHD is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder. Rare copy number variations, such as chromosomal deletions or duplications, have been implicated in ADHD and neurodevelopmental disorder. ( Jarick 2014) This is most likely associated with abnormalities in catecholamine’s and possibly serotonin metabolism. Having first degree relatives with ADHD have increased the risk for the disorder by 4 to 6 times that of the general population. Some studies revealed that alterations in specific areas of brain in individuals have more risk of children with ADHD. These regions include the prefrontal lobes, basal ganglia, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and cerebellum. Brain image of people with ADHD have suggested decreased metabolism in the frontal region of brain, which is essential for attention, impulse control, organisation, and sustained goal

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