Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the name for a group of developmental disorders. ASD is a complex disorder and each individual that suffers from it has a unique set of conditions. The symptoms of individuals with ASD vary in severity. (Lilienfeld et al., 2017, p. 603) The autism spectrum includes classical autism, Asperger 's syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). These disorders all involve social and communication difficulties, as well as repetitive behaviours and narrow interests. Considering Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurological developmental disorder, parents and caregivers can detect signs of autism …show more content…
Firstly, autistic individuals have difficulty understanding what is happening around them. The lack of understanding could be dangerous to their own well being and safety. This lack of understanding and awareness is largely due to their inability to communicate effectively with others and interpret social cues. Further, this causes autistic individuals a lot of anxiety and insecurity on a day to day basis (Gillot et al. 2001). They try to relieve this stress and anxiety by performing repetitious behaviours (i.e. rocking). In more extreme cases, an autistic individual may also throw tantrums that involve kicking, and biting. This may be hard for their parents, families and caregivers because autism isn’t a physical disability so the public may be quick to judge them for such “odd” behaviours (Groden et al., 1994). The public may think that the parent isn’t properly controlling their child. As an adult, the autistic individuals’ public tantrums may be attributed to crazy behaviour. This may lead to the individual and his/her family to be isolated (Autism Bedfordshire, 2016). This just increases their already high anxiety and may lead to mental issues such as depression. Additionally, as adults, individuals with ASD are associated with increased risk of violent offending compared with the general population (Langstrom et al., 2009). Furthermore, the inherent variability that exists when considering a spectrum disorder makes it difficult to have one set treatment for the
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Autism is the main form of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism is a developmental disorder that is manifested in problems with communication, impairment of social functioning, and repetitive behaviours. According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), ASD diagnoses must meet four different areas of criteria. There are three symptoms of "deficits in social communication and interaction across contexts," four symptoms of "restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests, or activities," "symptoms must be present in early childhood," and the symptoms must "together limit and impair everyday functioning" (Carpenter, 2013). There are many theoretical positions on the causes of autism spectrum disorders. Some of which have been discounted by empirical studies that have been researched and performed.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication, and behavior challenges and was first described by Dr. Leo Kanner in 1943 (Brown & Percy, 2007). Individuals with ASD can range from high functioning to low functioning in their ability to learn, think, and problem solve (Brown & Percy, 2007). Behavior problems are common among individuals with ASD (Hill at el, 2014). Kogan (2009) estimates that approximately 637,000 children in the U.S. alone have ASD and within those 637,000 children, Hagopian (2007) suggests that half of those children, who are diagnosed with ASD, also display problem behavior. According to Hagopian & Hardesty (2014), Applied Behavior
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a life-long developmental disorder with a neuro-biological basis that can cause significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. A diagnosis of ASD now includes several conditions that formerly were diagnosed separately: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, and Asperger syndrome. ASD varies significantly in character and severity, it occurs in all ethnic and socioeconomic groups and affects every age group. Males are four times more likely to have an ASD than females (NINDS, 2014).
Autism is a developmental disability that affects the way a child interacts with the rest of the world. It is the overall concept to a more complex disorder. Autism Spectrum Disorder, also known as ASD, is the more in depth concept for this topic. ASD helps to detect a wide degree of variation in the way it affects people. Every child on the Autism Spectrum has unique abilities, symptoms, and challenges. Individuals with autism have social, communication and language problems. They have their own unique quirks; for example, they become fascinated with certain subjects or items like rocks or astronomy. Autism may be mild or severe. All individuals with autism don 't have the exact same problems.
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a disorder of brain and stage development, “by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors… intellectual disability, difficulties in motor coordination and attention and physical health issues such as sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances” (Autismspeaks.org, 2012). The disorders on the spectrum include Rett syndrome, classic autism, atypical autism or pervasive development disorder not otherwise specified Asperger syndrome, and childhood disintegrative disorder. ASD can be caused by many
Repetitive behaviors like head banging and repetitive routines are consistent for individuals with autism. If the routine is disturbed, he or she screams and throws a temper tantrum (Wing, 24). Like their need for consistency in routines, autistics also need and demand absolute consistency in their environment. Changes in their environment cause them to act negatively (“Autism”). And individual with autism has a different sensory system than normal people, the stimulations are affected differently. For example, they have oversensitivity to light and this oversensitivity may cause seizures (“Autism”). At least one quarter of children with autism have an epilectic seizure before they become an adult. Other behaviors that may occur are high levels or anxiety, odd fears (ex. of color or shape), and emotions that change from one extreme to the other (Wing 31+; Siegel 49).
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), also referred to as autism, is defined as “a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child 's ability to communicate and interact with others. It also includes restricted repetitive behaviors, interests and activities. These issues cause significant impairment in social, occupational and other areas of functioning. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is now defined by the American Psychiatric Association 's Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a single disorder that includes disorders that were previously considered separate — autism, Asperger 's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified.” (DSM-5) Autism is
Autism is the most rapidly growing developmental disorder in the U.S. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism are both similar terms for a group of complicated disorders of brain development. Autism Spectrum Disorders are characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and communication skills with the presence of extremely odd behaviors. Autism is a spectrum condition meaning that while all individuals with autism share somewhat common challenges in their conditions they will all be affected differently. Social communication, interaction and imagination are three main areas of which all of those with autism share. Numerous individuals with ASDs have distinct ways of learning and behaving towards certain situations. Autism affects tens of millions globally and 3 million individuals in the United States alone.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is known as a complex developmental disability caused by brain abnormality. People with autism have issues with non-verbal communication, a wide range of social interactions ad activities that include and social activities. Moreover, autism is a life long developmental condition that affects, among other things, the way an individual relates to his or her environment and their interaction with other people.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the name for a group of developmental disorders. ASD includes a wide range, “a spectrum,” of symptoms, skills, and levels of disability. People with ASD often have these characteristics such as ongoing social problems that include difficulty communicating and interacting with others. Repetitive behaviors as well as limited interests or activities. Symptoms that typically are recognized in the first two years of life. Symptoms that hurt the individual’s ability to function socially, at school or work, or other areas of life. Some people are mildly impaired by their symptoms, while others are severely disabled. Treatments and services can improve a person’s symptoms and ability to function. In the presence of
Per the maturational lag hypothesis, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may arise from delayed development in any of the brain areas contributing to typical symptomology. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5), autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and involves impairments in social communication, social interaction, as well as the presence of restricted, repetitive, patterns of behavior, interests, or activities (American Psychological Association, 2013).
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects individuals whose brain development is outside of the norm. ASD is a complex disorder and each individual that suffers from has a unique set of conditions. The symptoms of individuals with ASD vary in severity. That is, the disorder is characterized, in varying degrees, based on how difficult social interactions and communicating are for the person. Before, all types of autism were considered as distinct and subtypes of autism. Each type of autism was termed as a unique disorder. For example, there was Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Asperger syndrome etc.… (Autism Speaks, 2016). However, the DSM-5 diagnostic manual merged all degrees of autism disorders into
According to Peterson (2013), “Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication, repetitive behaviors, and stereotyped interests and activities” (p. 748). However, symptoms and their severity vary greatly in each child. There are three types that have been identified: Classic Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. The cause of autism is unknown. According to Lockwood (2013), “Childhood Autism Risk from Genetics and Environment (CHARGE) studied preschool children with autism and has shown the roles of prenatal vitamins in early pregnancy” (p.748). The findings predict that ASD might be prevented with the intake of folic
The disorders are scientifically known as Autism Spectrum Disorders. ASDs can range from the slightest case where a child only shows one or two symptoms in the three core areas, to a very severe case of a child showing six or more symptoms in the three core areas. The three core areas are “social reciprocity, impaired communication, and repetitive restrictive patterns of behavior or interests” (Blenner et al. 343). There are currently three ASDs that can be diagnosed. Asperger’s disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder: not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Autistic Disorder listed in increasing severity of the disorders. Many children can go on about their daily lives not even realizing that they have an ASD. In fact, in the 1940’s, when Autism was first discovered and diagnosed, Autism was “thought to be relatively rare because only the most severely affected people were identified” (Blenner et al.