• Automobile car body is made from various grades of low alloy and low carbon steels that are prone to corrosion in the absence of proper surface protection [1,2]. Therefore, car body is traditionally coated with primer, followed by paint for better corrosion resistance. However, due to process complication, design intricacy and other issues, it is often observed that despite of applying several layers of primer and paint on the car body, it suffers from General, Pitting, and Crevice corrosion. When such corrosion occurs within the warranty period, it usually costs the car manufacturer significantly and more importantly, it results in bad customer experience. The success of automobile industries depends on keeping the customer satisfied with quality of product and services. Therefore, it is highly imperative that such problems are identified at an early stage and find effective solutions to mitigate them efficiently.
• Cold rolled steel sheets remained the most widely used car body material. However, to meet the future energy efficiency requirement of automobiles, automobile industries will have to look for optimum way in designing and usage of steel sheets. The standard TS-4011 summarizes the additional requirement for cold rolled sheets for critical auto body components and outer panels. In general, steel alloy must have high formability and high strength. In addition, car body material must have good joining characteristics. It is a common observation
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Over time the prices of automobiles have become on expensive due to the rise in the inflation rate. In terms of infrastructural development in the auto industry is one of most demanding fields of business. One of the major external factors that can affect the price elasticity comes from the oil dependence. Some other factors that cause shifts in supply & price elasticity; are the taxes that the government place on automotive manufacturers. In addition, to the population figures, and the buying potentiality of the consumers. Another aspect that can cause an area of concern is the price of steel. Although a lot of cars produce today are made of fiberglass, steel is still a needed necessary component in the automotive industry.
This is the case study about the Car Components Manufacturing Company. The goal is to reduce the casting defects in the automobile engine. They used different
• Expect corrosion in the sills, floorpans, wings and also the seams between the inner and outer wheelarches, unless the car has been restored. The welded-on wings have to be removed to properly repair the sills. Other corrosion hot spots include the bases of the A-posts and B-posts, the door
KBP Coil Coaters is one of the largest independent buyers of aluminum and steel coil in North America. KBP Coil Coaters has been around for 35 years, which began by coating aluminum and steel coils. The aluminum alloys are strong resistance against corrosion, excellent formability, and weldability. Aluminum alloys get manufactured for projects like chemical equipment, furniture, condensers, heat exchangers and wide pressure vessels. Also, it is extremely easy to cut and cool aluminum alloys at a rapid rate with a reduce cycle time and drastically cutting costs. Aluminum is lightweight, strong, and highly recyclable. The mission of KBP Coil Coaters is to providing the industry’s best pricing, quality, and service with products and services. The scope and objective of KBP Coil Coaters get based on cutting costs, saving energy, freeing up warehouse space, and
Harmful elements include ultraviolet rays and acid rain. These harmful elements cause the leather to crack, the dashboard to fade, and paint to flake and chip off. A product, such as Armor All, can be used to protect leather from fading and cracking, and the dashboard from fading. I always buy Armor All and other sprays in order to clean the interior of my car. These products are easily available on the automobile shops and we can also order them via Ebay and Amazon. Moreover, regularly cleaning the dirt and sand from under the wiper blades also increases the life of the car’s windshield because the sand that gets under the wiper can cause scratches on the windshield when we use wipers in the rain. Many people also use polishes and waxes to protect the paint on the car from fading and chipping due to the effects of the sun and acidic rain. A car wax makes your car shiny and protects the paint. It also covers minor scratches and stone chips. Also, when people wash their cars, they skip drying. In addition, drying the vehicle after washing is necessary because it prevents the water spots. After washing the car, you should always dry the mirrors first because they get the water spots quicker than the body of the car. Headlights also get blurry after some time. In order to clean and make them shiny as new, an individual needs a headlight restoration kit. I bought headlight restoration kit last week for $35 from Autozone. I cleaned the car’s headlights
The automotive industry’s use of structural composite materials began in the 1950s. Since those early days, it has been demonstrated that composites are lightweight, fatigue resistant and easily molded to shape. In other words, composite structures are seemingly attractive alternative to metals. Not only are composites used in the field of automotive but in all other fields such as aerospace, construction industry, and the entertainment industry.
In 2006, Hoa Sen Group is the first non-state production lines using cold-rolled steel, it used in automobile industry, roof plate, lamination used to plate and paint, steel pipe, household applications, oil drum, furniture, etc. (HSG Annual report, 2013-2014, page 97)
The need for reduction in weight of heavy vehicles is increasing day after day. Reduction of weight results in reduced fuel consumption which results in a decrease in the emission of greenhouse gas. For reducing the weight, higher strength to weight ratio steels would be required. Not only is a high strength, but the steel also requires to be adequately formable and greater energy absorption capacity. Good formability is essential for designing vehicle components with complex shapes. Dual phase (DP) steels are quite promising material for these purposes. DP steels can already achieve strength in the range of 500-1200 MPa with a total elongation of 15-25 %. Dual phase steels contain more than 1% alloying element among which major alloying elements are C, Si, Mn, and there are some other alloying elements also.
The landing gear is a fundamental component for the operation of an aircraft and for the safety of its crew/passengers. The aircraft relies heavily on the structural integrity of the landing gear to take off and land without failure. For military aircraft such as the Boeing F/A-18A/B Hornet, it becomes paramount not only as a safety factor for the pilot, but as a frontline defender for the Nation, that the operation is not inhibited in times of war. There are many factors that can be detrimental to the failure of a landing gear, one contributor being the presence of corrosion on structural items. Throughout the life of the aircraft or landing gear more specifically, the exposure to operating environments vary greatly due to the capability that the fighter aircraft must produce. As a result, there may be many different causes for corrosion, yet only a handful of ways to combat them. Some of the prevention methods include material selection and design, environmental conditions and protective coatings.
As a result, a prototype corrosion sensor has been explored in this study, in order to find the sensitive and systematic change in electrical properties of a metal surface (e.g., A36 carbon steel as investigated in this study) during the early-stage corrosion as it is exposed to a corrosive environment. A36 carbon steel is commonly used in steel bridges and other structures [13,14]. The definition of the early-stage corrosion is the mass change of the sensor is within 0.2% (or iron loss per exposed surface area is within 187.7 g/m2) as explored in this study. The prototype sensor was essentially a capacitor composed of two parts: (i) the same metal with the same passivation/coating as the metallic structure or the system to be monitored; (ii) a corrosion-resistant conductor. The two parts were separated by air, the same corrosion environment of the structure or the system in service. As a result, the corrosion of the sensor represents the extent of corrosion of the structure/system being monitored. During the course of corrosion and degradation, there is a rapid change of the surface morphology and the property of the metal, rather than a slow change of the bulk electrical resistance measured by the conventional corrosion sensors. Therefore, the degree of corrosion can be sensitively reflected by the systematic change of the capacitance and the resistance readings from the prototype sensor. To our best
Most of these offshore structures are constructed from steel thus making every part of it from drilling rigs to production facilities prone to internal and external corrosion due to the high temperature and pressure these facilities come in contact with in the aggressive ocean environments. Over time, these structures deteriorate and this causes a loss in their mechanical properties such as impact strength, strength and ductility which ultimately results in complete failure. Microorganism attacks, chemical attacks and abrasive action of waves are factors that can cause degradation of offshore oil and gas facilities. The significance of corrosion on the economy is considerable due to the fact that corrosion of oil and gas facilities, maintenance costs on aging/corroding equipment, costs for new construction, evaluation of structural integrity, periodical inspections and the correction of failures related to corrosion have been documented to cost billions of dollars per year according to an estimate made by the World Corrosion Organization (WCO).
The alloys were also plotted along with the elements and its orientations. Here, the alloys were clustered by K-means clustering method to classify the alloys into different clusters. Alloys that belong to the same cluster have the same symbol. Few best alloys mentioned in Table 2 were plotted in the figure. In these figures, variables (elements) were plotted as arrows. The arrows represent the relative contribution of the original variables to the variance along the PCs. In these figures, the longer the arrows, the stronger are their contributions. Additionally, an arrow orthogonal to a certain PC has a null effect on that PC while an arrow that is collinear to a certain PC contribute only to that certain PC.
As nations continue to expend their energies into expanding infrastructure, developing technology and making key discoveries in healthcare, not enough attention is being spent on protecting what the world has created or constructed already. Historical sites, National Monuments, Key infrastructure and everyday items are constantly under attack from a natural phenomenon known as corrosion. Every year over US $2.2 trillion is spent worldwide in repairing, and protecting components and structures from corrosion. It is important that corrosion is considered in every design process that is undertaken to enable components to operate at the highest efficiency for the longest period of time. This will not only aid in the efficiency but also reduce the economic burden of repairing and maintaining the component in question. An important component that is necessary for global trade is a boat propeller. There are a large number of factors and considerations that must be included into design and fabrication of a boat propeller. These include Environmental conditions, operational conditions, Alloy selection and Maintenance.
Moreover, the phase angle at high frequency is always used to evaluate the corrosion resistance ability of coatings[28–30]. As shown in Bode phase plot (Fig. 6), the phase angle at 105 Hz decreased, and the peak at the high frequency moved to a middle-high frequency region with the erosion process, indicating the gradual decline in the corrosion protection ability of the coatings. One time constant can be observed in the Bode phase plots of the pristine PBA, PBA/α-ZrP-3%, and PBA/α-ZrP-5% coating, indicating that the coating did not corrode during the 8-day immersion. Unlike the other coatings, PBa/α-ZrP-10% exhibited two time constants. The time constant appearing at high frequency range is associated to the coating layer, whereas that at
This project was entitled as “Investigation of Performance and Behavior of Cylinder Liner made of hypereutectic aluminium Silicon alloy with Lining of Copper with varying thickness.” The Central idea behind this project was to develop the substitute of the current cylinder liner material being used in automobiles and evaluate its performance and compare its results with the performance of current cylinder liner material. The culmination of this project was I submitted my project report to the supervisor of this project and also the university and successfully demonstrated it in front of university as well as college delegates. Along with that I successfully presented a review on Making of cylinder liners at the National conference on advances in Mechanical Engineering-2015 held at K.S.S.E.M