Essay on Bioethics

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Bioethics      Progress in the pharmacological, medical and biological sciences involves experimentation on all living species, including animals and humans. The effectiveness of medications investigative procedures and treatments must at some point be tested on animals and human beings. Although tests are conducted much more frequently on lab animals, especially those most related to humans, they do not provide sufficient information.      The history of medicine shows that there has always been a need for experimentation on human beings. Examples of these consist of the inoculation of Newgate prisoners in 1721, who had been condemned to death with Smallpox. In 1796, Edward Jenner, also…show more content…
     Since we are in Canada, there are two categories of law dealing with regulating experimentation. The first is Federal and Provincial Legislation. The second consists of documents, codes of ethics and reports, which while not necessarily enforceable, strongly urge researchers experiments on human subjects to observe certain standards of conduct. A.     FEDERAL AND PROVINCIAL LEGISLATION      The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms governs here. Some of its provisions in effect make certain kinds of experiments illegal. "Any experimental activity which endangers the protected values is thereof illegal."~ Another is according to current case law, "treatment" may be broadly construed rather than being limited to therapy.~      Criminal sanctions dealing with offences against the person make it possible to penalize those causing harm to a subject who has not given valid consent to an experiment. Explaining this, many experiments on humans are legal and performed everyday. No experiment is performed without a purpose. The most common is during surgery, the patients give valid consent to have experiments conducted on them during the operation.      With respect to medications, citizens of Canada are given protection by the Food and Drug Act. These laws control new medications into the market. Although

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