Bone Formation In Angiogenesis

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The skeletal system supports the body shape and helps in movement. Skeletons are a dynamic tissue, constantly rebuild and reabsorb throughout lifetime (Karsenty and Wagner, 2002). Bone formation (osteogenesis), growth and remodeling are highly dependent on new blood vessel formations (angiogenesis) (Brandi and Collin-Osdoby, 2006). Notably, angiogenesis plays a major role in fracture healing and repair. Moreover imbalance of the vasculature leads to progression of numerous bone diseases (osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, bone cancer and metastasis)(Carulli et al., 2013). In angiogenesis, avascular region of the tissue is hypoxic and secretes angiogenic factors to induce the new blood vessel formation form existing ones (Potente et al., 2011). The inner layer of blood vessel is covered by endothelial cells (ECs) and shielded by perivascular cells (pericytes and smooth muscle cells) and outer layer is directly connected to the vascular beads (Carmeliet and Jain, 2011). Further, the vessel formation, architecture and function are varying in organ specific manner (Rocha and Adams, 2009). Signal from perivascular…show more content…
Proper communications between these processes are essential for bone development, growth and homeostasis. Bone angiogenesis is a key player in these processes. Bone cells secrete angiogenic factor (e.g, Vegfa, Fgf and Tgf) to induce bone angiogenesis and angiocrine signal stimulate chondrogenesis and osteogenesis (Gerber and Ferrara, 2000). Additionally, vascular system supports hematopoiesis through its niche signal. This signal act as an extrinsic signal to control hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance and differentiation (Ugarte and Forsberg, 2013). Blood vessels are important and plays vital role in bone. In this review we focus on bone vasculature architecture and formation, and its role in osteogenesis, pathological settings like fracture healing and
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