Breast Cancer Pain Essay

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Breast Cancer Pain
Breast Anatomy and Physiology

The breasts or mammary glands are sometimes considered a part of the reproduction system. Structurally, they are modified sweat glands. They are composed of mainly fat, breast tissue, nerves, veins, arteries, and connective tissues.

The breast is usually situated on top of the pectoral major muscles covering the second rib to the sixth or seventh rib and extends from the sternum to the mid-axillary line. Breast tissue has an axillary tail which extends into the armpit region. Most breast cancer originates here. The nipple is usually level with the fourth intercostal space in men and nulliparous women.

The connective tissues (suspensory or Cooper's ligaments) and fat help …show more content…

This system works via the five groups of axillary nodes, one group of interpectoral nodes, one group of parasternal nodes and ultimately subclavian lymph trunk. Since axillary nodes provide seventy five percent of drainage, they are usually the first to be invaded by cancer cells.

Externally, each breast has a nipple that is made of erectile muscle tissue. These muscle tissue raises the nipples in response to stimulation or breastfeeding. Surrounding the nipples are the areola and areolar glands. These glands are small pumps with oil (sebaceous) glands that provide lubrication during breast feeding. Sometimes there will be hair growing on edge of the areola. This is normal especially in women on birth control pills.

The breast starts forming when the fetus is about five weeks old. It begins with mammary ridge which develops along the trunk from the axilla to the groin. Then 15 to 20 branches of the solid epithelial columns are formed. These columns are then canalized before birth to form the lactiferous ducts.

When a baby is born, the breasts and most of their structures have already formed. Before puberty, male and female breasts are almost alike. It consists of lactiferous ducts with no lobules (milk glands). At puberty, hormones created by the ovaries and pituitary gland cause the ducts to proliferate and form solid inactive lobes in female. High

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