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Essay Cancer

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. If the spread of these abnormal cells is not controlled, cancer can cause death. Most cancers take the form of tumors, although not all tumors are cancers. A tumor is simply a mass of new tissue that serves no physiological purpose. It can be benign, like a wart, or malignant, like cancer. Benign tumors are made up of cells similar to the surrounding normal cells and are enclosed in a membrane that prevents them from penetrating neighboring tissues. They are dangerous only if their physical presence interferes with bodily functions. A malignant tumor, or cancer, is capable of invading surrounding structures, including blood
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These symptoms are not always warning signs of cancer. They can also be caused by less serious conditions. It is important to see a doctor if any of these symptoms occur. Only a doctor can make a diagnosis. A person shouldn't wait to feel pain because early cancer usually does not cause pain.

Observation is the most widely available examination for the detection of cancer. It is useful in identifying suspicious lesions in the skin, lip, mouth, larynx, external genitalia and cervix. The second most available detection procedure is palpation. It is particularly valuable in detecting lumps, nodules, or tumors in the breast, mouth, salivary glands, thyroid, subcutaneous tissues, anus, rectum, prostate, testes, ovaries and uterus and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, axilla or groin.

Internal cancers require an extension of observation through endoscopes, x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound. Laboratory test, such as the Pap smear, and occult blood testing of the feces have also proven helpful for some of the cancers. However, concerns regarding effectiveness and yield play a particularly important role in decisions to screen for cancers not easily responsive to earlier detection through physical examination. The performance of these tests is usually measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. The type, periodicity, and
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