Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are a growing problem around the world today. Not only do diseases such as diabetes and heart disease affect individuals and their lifestyles, they also affect the economy, politics, education and the professional work environment. 20-26% of individuals in the United States live with heart disease, and obesity and high blood pressure compose the greatest factors for developing this disease . Studies have shown a direct correlation between the amount of sedentary time and cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk, regardless of baseline measurements . Thus, increase in physical activity will decrease cardiometabolic risk factors . Several studies indicate a positive correlation between physical activity and decreased cardiometabolic risk markers [2,4,11,16]. However, we now know that an individual who is getting the recommended physical activity per day can still have a large amount of sedentary time.
Cardiometabolic risk has been shown to increase in relation to increased sedentary time, but decrease with breaks in sedentary time. Cooper et al. found that increased sedentary time was positively associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. Another study discovered that metabolic markers such as insulin sensitivity, triglyceride levels, and glucose tolerance were found to improve with increased physical activity breaks . Another benefit of physical activity breaks in sedentary time is the lowering of postprandial
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Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer in the United States, causing about 610,000 deaths yearly (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). Cardiovascular disease is defined as a group of disorders damaging the heart and blood vessels, usually involving the blockage of vessels, which in turn harm the heart (WHO, 2015). A 2011 American Heart Association statement predicted that without intervention, 40% of United States adults will have at least one form of Cardiovascular disease by 2030. A large portion of these deaths by cardiovascular disease is due to the sedentary population. To better prevent cardiovascular disease, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Advisory Committee stated that adults should complete about 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity, or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity physical activity weekly (Barry, Blair, Church, Hooker, Sui, Warren, 2010). Research has shown that meeting these recommendations is linked with lower cardiovascular disease risk, as well as reduced risk of mortality. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that only about 20.3% of Americans meet these guidelines. These statistics show that the majority of the United States population does not get nearly the amount of physical activity they need. However, even though many people are not doing the recommended amount of physical activity, this may not mean that they are living a sedentary life. Living a sedentary lifestyle is
According to the American Heart Association, cardiovascular disease or heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in America. Cardiovascular disease refers to a disease of the heart and/or blood vessels. It is also known as heart disease. The term cardiovascular disease covers many conditions and is extremely dangerous. Atherosclerosis is one of the major conditions that falls under the cardiovascular disease category. Atherosclerosis is a condition that develops when plaque, made from various substances that circulate in your blood, builds up on the walls of the arteries. The buildup narrows the arteries and makes it difficult for blood to flow through. The major risks of atherosclerosis are heart attack or stroke (American Heart Association, n.d.).
According to the WHO, cardiovascular diseases have been the leading cause of death globally claiming 17 million lives a year, more deaths than all cancer combined (Chiu and Radisic, 2013). Cardiovascular disease is responsible for a preponderance of health problems and its impact is expected to grow further as the population ages. In the UK, NHS spends about £7.74 billion as the expenditure to deal with cardiovascular diseases (Barton et al., 2011). Cardiovascular disease in the form of myocardial infarction has become the principle cause of death in developed countries, accounting for nearly 40% of all deaths (http://www.bhf.org.uk/). Congenital heart defects, which occur in nearly 14 of every 1000 new-born children, is another tragic fact that baffles medical industry (http://www.heart.org/). About 61 million Americans (almost one-fourth of the population) live with cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease, congenital cardiovascular defects, and congestive heart failure.
Cardiovascular disease has reportedly been the number one disease killer for men and women in the United States of America. Every one out of four deaths is caused by heart disease in the United States alone (Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention). Heart disease refers to the different types of conditions and symptoms that can affect the one’s heart and its functions to the body (Mayo Clinic). Cardiovascular/Heart disease has many causes and conditions, prevention methods and symptoms, and treatment options.
Caba (2016) reported that a sedentary lifestyle can increase the risk of heart disease more than smoking and obesity in women over 30. For this reason, minimising sedentary behaviour is an important physical activity aspect that should in the ‘Top 9 Australian Wellness Guidelines for Adults’.
The stigma of the sedentary lifestyle is not limited to working. Many sedentary habits develop at ones home. Watching television and playing on the computer have proven to be one of the least engaging metabolic activities. Riding, driving and reading have proven to have higher metabolic rates then watching television or playing a game on the computer. Working and watching television consumes many American’s time (Medical Center). Based on a study done in 2012 the average American under the age of two watches approximately thirty-four hours of live television a week and three to six hours watching taped programs a week (Hinckley). In the end, a small fraction of the day is left to burn calories and raise ones metabolic rate (Medical Center).
Globally, around 31% of adults aged 15 and over were insufficiently active in 2008 (men 28% and women 34%). Approximately 3.2 million deaths each year are attributable to insufficient physical activity (WHO, 2013). Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure (WHO, 2013). Physical inactivity is estimated to be the main cause for approximately 27% of those who have diabetes (WHO, 2013). In order to globally take control over this worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes, physical activity needs to become a daily activity in each and everyone’s lives. Physical activity is extremely important as it helps keep blood glucose, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in check. It helps lower the risks of type 2 diabetes (WHO, 2013).
New evidence today suggest that the more hours that you sit, the greater likelihood of dying an earlier death regardless of how much you exercise, or how lean you are ( Masters, 2010). The fact is that millions of Americans think they are being healthy by working out at the gym on a daily basis. These people do not realize that the exercise they are doing in the gym is not able to counteract the effects of the “desk job.” These same people think they are living an active life by working out on almost a daily basis. The truth is that this is considered to be living an inactive lifestyle. The red flag is now raised. These same people that work out at the gym daily are now grouped into the dreaded sedentary lifestyle. Being a member of this group increases your chances of diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, and coronary artery disease. On top of all this, it increases the chances of obesity. Obesity notably increases when a person is living a sedentary lifestyle.
Modern urbanised living is associated with lower levels of both recreational and occupational physical activity due to significant advances in technology over the last number of decades. With this decrease in physical activity comes a decrease in energy expenditure. However, this decrease in energy expenditure is usually not associated with a decrease in energy intake, consequently leading to energy surplus (Noland and O’Gorman 2013). This excess energy is then stored primarily as adipose tissue but can also be found in other body tissues. Although physical inactivity has been linked with more than 30 chronic diseases, diabetes being one of them, a vast amount of the population still don’t meet the current recommended physical activity guidelines (Nolan and O’Gorman 2013). The impact
4. Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39(8):1423-34. Abstract available at:
Physical activity is important in the prevention of many diseases, not just type II diabetes patients. Type II diabetes patient need physical activity in order to regulate blood pressure, lower insulin resistance and control BMI. There are many more positive effects surrounding physical activity. It’s important for everyone to achieve the physical activity guidelines to lower their chance of
This study looked at a sample of 15,171 men between the ages of 25-74 years old in order to examine coronary risk factors related to physical activity. Each individual was categorized and given one of three grades (minimal,moderate, and heavy) for their activity levels based on their work and leisure activities. The risk factors that were examined for this study were serum cholesterol, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), relative weight, and cigarette usage per day. The results showed that for each category of the grade levels, there was a decrease in all risk factor levels with an increase in leisure activity. The lowest levels of the risk factors were shown in the category of heavy leisure activity and minimal work activity. For work
Physical activity has been proven to have phenomenal benefits on the human body and is an important part of a balanced lifestyle. Statistics have shown that regular exercise can prevent illness and lower one’s likelihood of being diagnosed with a series of diseases significantly. It has been ‘medically proven’ that regular exercise can reduce a subject’s chance of being diagnosed with coronary heart disease or stroke by 35%, type two diabetes by 50%, colon cancer by 50%, breast cancer by 20%, early death by 30%, osteoarthritis by 83% and a number of other life threatening illnesses. Regular exercise can improve a person’s overall wellbeing and immunity to common illnesses. During physical activity, a person’s heart rate can increase significantly and allow more oxygenated blood to be supplied to muscles. A person’s breathing rate can increase during exercise and supply more oxygen to the lungs. The increased blood flow during exercise allows the brain to function better. Exercise has many benefits to the human body and is a major factor of disease
The benefits of physical exercise in humans far outweighs the harmful effects associated with exercise. A prescription of physical activity has been known to delay the onset or prevention of many chronic diseases. An improvement in heart function, lower blood pressure and improve functional capacity is noticed after just a few weeks of exercising. Physical activity will also result in an increase of lean muscle mass, promote weight maintenance, increased flexibility, and a generally stronger more fit individual. Conversely, exercise when preformed strenuously or obsessively can counteract such positive effects, bringing up some issues like oxidative stresses, injuries, and