Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases

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Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are a growing problem around the world today. Not only do diseases such as diabetes and heart disease affect individuals and their lifestyles, they also affect the economy, politics, education and the professional work environment. 20-26% of individuals in the United States live with heart disease, and obesity and high blood pressure compose the greatest factors for developing this disease [20]. Studies have shown a direct correlation between the amount of sedentary time and cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk, regardless of baseline measurements [20]. Thus, increase in physical activity will decrease cardiometabolic risk factors [8]. Several studies indicate a positive correlation between physical activity and decreased cardiometabolic risk markers [2,4,11,16]. However, we now know that an individual who is getting the recommended physical activity per day can still have a large amount of sedentary time.
Cardiometabolic risk has been shown to increase in relation to increased sedentary time, but decrease with breaks in sedentary time. Cooper et al. found that increased sedentary time was positively associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. Another study discovered that metabolic markers such as insulin sensitivity, triglyceride levels, and glucose tolerance were found to improve with increased physical activity breaks [27]. Another benefit of physical activity breaks in sedentary time is the lowering of postprandial

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