Classification Test for Organic Halides

1539 Words Dec 17th, 2012 7 Pages

James Anand L. Regala, Sabrina Nicolle G. Sarte, Ann Michelle Siao,
Michael Sibulo, Victoria Tan
Group 8 2C Pharmacy Organic Chemistry Laboratory

This experiment is done to classify organic halides. Most organic halides are synthetic and are not flammable. One way to classify organic halides is by classifying its -carbon atom as primary, secondary or tertiary. If the -carbon is attached to one R group, it is then primary. If the -carbon is attached to R groups, it is then secondary, and if attached to 3 R groups, it is then said to be tertiary. But this is only applicable if the -carbon is tetragonal or sp3 hybridized. Another way of classifying organic halides is by differentiating
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The reactions that occur are SN2 substitutions in which iodide ion is the nucleophile; the order of reactivity is primary > secondary > tertiary.

RCl + NaI ------------> RI + NaCl

RBr + NaI ------------> RI + NaBr

With the reagent, primary bromides give a precipitate of sodium bromide in about 3 min at room temperature, whereas the primary and secondary chlorides must be heated to about 500C before reaction occurs. Secondary and tertiary bromides react at 50EC, but the tertiary chlorides fail to react in a reasonable time. It should be noted that this test is necessarily limited to bromides and chlorides. [3]
A. Sample tested
The following are the sample tested for the classification tests for Organic Halides:
a. n-butyl chloride


b. sec-butyl chloride

c. tert-butyl chloride

d. Chlorobenzene

B. Procedure
A. Beilstein Test: Copper Halide Test
First, a small loop was made at the end of a copper wire. The looped end was then heated directly at the oxidizing zone of a non-luminous flame. The loop was cooled and dipped into the test compound thoroughly. The loop with the test compound was then heated in a non-luminous flame. Repeat procedure with other test compounds.
B. SN1: Reaction with Alcoholic AgNO3
Five drops of a test compound is added to 20 drops of 2% ethanolic AgNO3. The compound was shook and time…