Closed Loop Essay

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Abstract Closed loop feedback control approaches allow precise, real-time control of neural activity pattern to lock spiking activity to specific target spiking rate within neural network. This approaches enable investigators to tune the internal brain state into a desired state, induce or disrupt the related frequency of neural network in order to achieve a specific functionality. Here we implement a continuous, precise closed loop feed back control to lock the firing rate at specific targeted spiking activities in moto cortex of isoflurane anesthetized rats and in a computational network-level model. We found that controllability of neural activity strikingly varies as neural state changes, furthermore we found it trade off between…show more content…
Why does a quiescent animal evoke a larger response and adaptation comparing to an active and awake animal? There is a hypothesis that when cortex maintains the synchronized state in an anesthetized and quiescent awake animal, synapses are often in resting state so they are electrically less active. Therefore, they can save energy to perform other functions [26, 27]. Also, when the cortex evokes a large response to the first stimulus in a high repetitive stimulus within synchronization, it leaves less energy for response to other stimuli in the train therefore the response would suppress stronger in synchronized than the desynchronized state. Despite apparent complex state dependency of cortical response, investigators developed a simple excitable model to predict subsequent sensory response using background ongoing activity prior to the presentation of stimuli, they estimated the parameters of the model using spontaneous activity prior to the onset of stimuli. Model dynamics was changed to reproduce different cortical states, a nonlinear, self-exciting system generated synchronized state and a linear system in reproduced desynchronized states. response to an isolated unattended stimulus was quantitatively predicted on a trial-by-trial basis using a simple dynamical system, it was shown that response is generated based on the same dynamics as spontaneous activity [28]. Closed loop control systems A closed loop control system, also refers to a self-adjusting
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