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Essay about Comprehensive study of Road Roughness in India

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COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON ROAD ROUGHNESS
Road roughness is the deviation of the pavement surface from a true planar surface with characteristic dimension that affect vehicle dynamics, ride quality, dynamic load and drainage , for example longitudinal profile, transverse profile, and cross slope(ASTM E867). By causing vehicle vibrations, roughness has a direct influence on vehicle wear, ride comfort, and safety. The relationship between vehicle operating cost and road roughness are well established through several studies conducted in India and abroad. Roughness measurements are an important factor in making decisions towards spending limited budgets for maintenance and improvements. Due to this, specifications for roughness have been adopted
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The roughness of the pavement causes change in the normal forces that act at the tyre-pavement interface and affects the lateral forces needed to control a vehicle, thereby influencing the steering capabilities of the vehicle. Roughness can also cause significant loss of breaking force or slip resistance on a vehicle. In addition to this, problems can arise due to variation of roughness in each of the wheel tracks of a lane. These differences of roughness in each wheel path cause differences in the breaking and sliding forces that act on the vehicle. This will cause the exposure of vehicle to different levels of friction on each side, which can cause a significant safety problem.
Effect on Vehicle Operating Cost
The Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC) components consist of fuel consumption, oil consumption, tyre wear, maintenance and repair, and depreciation. Road surface roughness is one of the factors determining VOC. While increasing roughness increases fuel consumption at any given speed, increasing roughness also reduces travel speed, which reduces fuel consumption per unit distance for most free running travel speeds. Repair and maintenance cost is also get affected by road roughness.
Effect on Vehicle Riding Comfort
Vehicle’s riding quality varies with travel speed, the dynamic characteristics of the roughness of the road. Assessment of ride quality and road roughness by measuring the
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