Coronary Artery Disorder Research Paper

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Revolution in Coronary Artery Disease Management
Coronary artery disease (CAD), the most common form of heart disease, is the leading cause of death in India. CAD is a condition in which plaque (unhealthy fat deposits) buildup causes narrowing or blockage of coronary blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscles. This reduces the flow of blood to the heart.
CAD may further lead to other forms of heart diseases like heart attack, heart failure, and arrhythmia. Depending on the severity of the disease, people suffering from CAD may benefit from Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) or Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG). PCI, commonly known as angioplasty is a minimally invasive procedure used to open blocked blood vessels; while
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FFR is a procedure that accurately identifies the blood flow blockage in a coronary blood vessel and helps cardiologists to diagnose CAD. FFR measurement aids cardiologists in deciding whether or not to perform surgical intervention (angioplasty or stenting) on the blockages. If the FFR measurement shows that the flow of blood in a vessel is not significantly obstructed, then the blockage may not need to a surgical intervention (angioplasty or stenting). In such cases, patients may be treated with medical therapy.
How is CAD diagnosed using FFR?
FFR test is performed by guiding a thin wire (with a pressure sensor at the tip) into the blocked blood vessel through a catheter (thin hollow tube), to measure the pressure gradient in the blocked vessel. The FFR value is the ratio of the pressure gradient before and after the blockage. (See illustration)
How is it determined if a blockage requires surgical intervention?
In a normal blood vessel, FFR value equals 1. When the FFR value is ≥ 0.80, it indicates a non-significant blockage and does not require surgical intervention. In contrast, if the FFR value is ≤ 0.80, it indicates a significant blockage and hence requires a surgical
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