Development And Development Of Pbl Development

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2.1 Introduction to the Chapter This chapter is intended to:
a. Provide a description of the most common problems in PBL implementation, which can impact on the achievement of PBL outcomes
b. Construct a theoretical framework guiding the research process
c. Provide a theoretical understanding to analyse the data emerged from the participants in the qualitative research stage.
This chapter consists of 6 sections: introduction to the chapter, PBL review, self-regulated learning review, self-assessment review, theoretical framework and summary of the chapter. The first section gives an overview of the chapter, including its objectives and contents. The PBL section reviews the objectives of PBL and the theories related to the PBL concept,
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The self-assessment review provides the definition of and current research trends about self-assessment, and it also analyses the different paradigms in self-assessment concepts, which emphasise the accuracy of self-assessment or assisting students’ learning. The theoretical framework section summarises the relationship between PBL, self-regulated learning and self-assessment. Finally, the summary provides a synopsis of this chapter.

2.2. Problem Based Learning (PBL): From theory to reality
This section reviews PBL, namely its theoretical concepts, the evidence about how the quality of PBL implementation can undermine its effects, and suggestions on how to address this condition. PBL is a powerful learning method based on four principles: collaborative, contextual, self-directive and constructive learning. PBL has many positive effects, such as increasing the acquisition of usable knowledge and of problem-solving, self-directed learning, and teamwork skills. To achieve these objectives, all PBL components (tutor, problem, small group, and assessment method) should be organised in line with its principles. This section provides evidence of the signs of erosion in PBL implementation, most of which are caused by students and could undermine the achievement of PBL goals.

2.2.1. PBL History
Problem-based learning (PBL) was developed by Barrows (1968) and was
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