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Difference Between Menarche And Menopause

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INTRODUCTION
Women who were the most dormant segment of the Indian population have now become active participants in all aspects of life (Gyan, 2015). She bear’s a special gift of bearing, rearing children. The major concern in woman’s life is reproductive health and they need enormous attention. Menarche and menopause are the two important phases of the reproductive cycle. The menopause is a time in women’s life when the reproductive capacity ceases. In menopause, the post-menopausal stage is the time next to menopause and peri-menopausal is the stage during which menopausal changes occur (Pillitteri,1999).
In early menopausal transition, estrogen levels are generally normal or even slightly increased; the level of follicle-stimulating hormone begins to elevate but is generally in the normal range (Deborah Grady, 2006). The women, in the transition to menopause, may experience vasomotor, psychosomatic, urogenital, psychological symptoms, and an increased the tendency to obesity, as well as sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of these symptoms linked to menopause different across ethnic, socioeconomic groups and between urban and rural women (Das Gupta, et al. 2009). These
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The starting point of the menopausal changes seems to be the reduction of the ovum in the ovaries (Kirkwood, 1998). The female hormones produced from ovaries, which control the development of female body characteristics such as the body shape, breasts, and body hair. Both estradiol E2 and the peptide hormones Inhibin A and Inhibin B are secreted in the granulosa cells of the ovary, and the quantity produced is influenced by the pituitary hormones; follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Declining levels of inhibin B and A is followed by increasing levels of FSH and marks the onset of the menopause. LH levels also elevate, but less marked compared to FSH (Overlie I, et al.
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