In this task I will compare two theories of self-esteem which contribute to our understanding of self-concept. The theories which I will be focused on are Bowlby’s and Harter’s.
Furthermore, the effects of these awards go far beyond sports and contests. Being awarded at such a young age for just about anything is highly misleading of how the real world works. Many young Americans have developed a sense of entitlement, expecting to gain more in return for less effort. Per a study done by Bernard Goldberg approximately one out of every three college students believes they deserve a B just for attending their courses. This sense of privilege is an almost contagious mind-set that has only gotten worse. But many ask how exactly the idea that one should be rewarded for almost anything began?
On the other hand, self-esteem is a measure of how one may view oneself. Self-esteem has a lot to do with a person’s level of confidence and the self-image that a person may have. An individual’s self-esteem may fluctuate daily depending on certain experiences, which can cause changes in the thoughts and feelings that one may have. According to the Oxford Dictionary, self-esteem is the confidence in one’s own worth, abilities, and the self respect a person has for themselves. Similar to the styles of humor, depending on the particular individual, there are many levels regarding ones self-esteem. A person who has very high self-esteem would be considered to have a very positive self-image and be confident of oneself. Whereas a person, who has low self-esteem, would be considered to have more of a negative self-image, be unsure of oneself as well as any personal relationships
What is self- esteem? Self- esteem is confidence in one’s own worth or abilities. In “Grades & Self- Esteem”, author Randy Moore (2007) stated that the level of performance of the students decreased while schools are building the self- esteem in the students. Author Alfie Kohn (1994) stated in his article “The Truth about Self- Esteem” to contradict Moore’s opinion that academics and self- esteem are not related. Moore discussed some beneficial points which are useful for the students, but in some cases his argument was not giving better meaning. I agree from Moore’s article that the American students do not perform as well academically as students from other countries. I do not agree from Moore’s opinion that the
According to the American Psychological Association (2010), the definition of self-esteem is the degree to which the qualities and characteristics contained in one’s self concept are perceived to be positive. It reflects a person’s physical self-image, view of his or her accomplishments and capabilities, and values and perceived success in living up to them, as well as ways in which others view and respond to that person. The more positive the cumulative perception of these qualities and characteristics, the higher one’s self-esteem. A high or reasonable degree of self-esteem is considered an important ingredient of mental health, whereas low self-esteem and feelings of worthlessness are common depressive symptoms.
The identification of self-esteem as a part of psychology thought to have its origins from the philosopher and psychologist, William James. The observation about self and storage of those observations by the “I-self” create three types of knowledge, which count for the “Me-self”, according to James.
In a society that tells everyone what they need to wear, how they need to look, and what they need to buy mental health disorders are only increasing. Things such as depression, anxiety, and eating disorders are at an all time high. The main cause of these disorders is low self esteem. People feel like they are not good enough because they aren’t the perfect image of society. Our society isn’t at a place where it’s going to change its ways overnight. However, exercise is proven to help with self esteem. In a society where many have low self esteem it is necessary to take steps to change that. It starts within every person deciding they’re going to improve and exercise regularly.
In a world where having friends is highly stressed, being perfect in academics, we are showing future generations what's right and how they need to look and act. Young teenage girls have to undergo the pressure of getting into a good college and being well-rounded. Added onto that they must have confidence and a strong self esteem, along with other factors that will play into their lives.
If you spend your life doing nothing, it doesn’t matter what kind of esteem you have. One of the factors that influence self esteem is what you achieve with your existence. The goals and objectives you set for yourself. How often and in what manner you challenge yourself.
Self-esteem is a realistic respect for or favorable impression of oneself. In 1892, William James defined self-esteem. His two hierarchy are "I-self" and "Me-Self". "I-Self" is the process of knowledge while "Me-Self" is the result of knowing yourself. There are three types of knowledge: self, social self, and spiritual self. In the mid-1960s, Morris Rosenberg also defined self-esteem. He created the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSEC). The RSEC asks questions ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The answers are counted into numbers and placed into a scale of 0-30. A range of 15-25 is a normal self-esteem. Anything under 15 considers a low self-esteem. Robert White believed in two sources: internal and external. Nathaniel was "the first person to define self-esteem in terms or worthiness and competence." His findings were based on philosophy. Self-esteem is one of the four core self-evaluators. Abraham Maslow included self-esteem in his hierarchy of human needs. "He described two different forms of "esteem": the need for respect from others in the form of recognition, success, and admiration, and the need for self-respect in the form of self-love, self-confidence, skill, or aptitude" (wikipedia).
The “self” is an identity that is formed through an individual’s experiences and exploration throughout the course of their life; it is ever changing. In an individual’s discovery of their “self”, self-esteem, one’s confidence in their abilities as an individual or “self” can impact their level of happiness. As a result, an individual’s self-esteem in terms of performance, behavior, and body image can weaken or strengthen their emotional stability.
The movements of self-esteem started since the 18th century, the reason behind it was because people were too worried about a place to stay and trying to feel accepted, this was around the wars and the Great Depression. So the person that started the self-esteem movement was David Hume, he showed the idea of how important it was to value and think well of yourself. As the time went on, in the 1960s, Seligman presented the idea of how he believed of the beauty of this definition is that it stresses two ingredients of self-esteem which have been present in debates about the concept ever since: namely, self-esteem includes the idea of “feeling good” and “doing well”. So it became “fashionable” during this century, that it was okay to tell people about seeing a therapist or psychologist. In the 1980s, the ‘ME’ phase came in as a thought that crime happened because of the cause of low esteem. So it was said that the movement to higher self-esteem, was to praise people, but it turned that it didn’t work since the crime rate increased. In the 1990s and the 2000s,
Self-esteem is an individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation of oneself. Self-esteem can bring an impact to an adolescent’s life in both a positive or negative way. Self-esteem in adolescents can be affected by various factors, such as socioeconomic status, race, gender, ethnicity and even societal pressure can affect a person’s self-esteem. Adolescents can also have high or low self-esteem in various areas such academic performances, relationships, and even in their social life. Despite adolescents perceive who they are through self-concept, it doesn’t actually mean they would like fully about themselves. Self-concept is defined as an individual’s personal identity or set of beliefs about one is like as an individual. Various perceptions of themselves can determine their self-esteem in the future.
When individuals compare themselves to others, generally, people tend to use upward comparison through the idea that one day they will become that ideal image. This could mean in wealth, health, happiness, etc. When comparing to others, many people feel inadequate and their self-esteem suffers for it. If someone cannot reach what they aspire to be, especially when comparing themselves to others who have accomplished these goals, their self-esteem is generally lower than average. Studying this topic allows insight into how others affect an individual’s self-esteem when they are compared and the differences that can affect the social comparison. This importance is to determine what features and aspects of life are causing lower self-esteem in individuals that use upward social comparison and how these affects can be different for everyone. The intent of this study is to correlate whether people feel better or worse about themselves through upward social comparison to general role models. This is important because role models can have a peculiar impact on someone’s self-esteem, depending on how that role model behaves.
Lauren Slater, in her article “The Trouble with Self-Esteem” starts out by stating that self-esteem is generally regarded as a positive thing. A person of high self-esteem is a successful well-respected member of society, with the opposite being true for a person of low self-esteem. She explains that in the social science and psychological world this notion has been rarely challenged until recently. She shares examples of many papers and essays whose premise is to contradict these well-accepted ideas. She goes on to cite that we as Americans focus on self-esteem, creating associations and task forces to aid in the development of self-esteem.