Discussion On Geographical Profiling And Crime Theory

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Geographical profiling is based on several theories including routine activity theory (Cohen & Felson, 1979) suggesting that offenders come across opportunities to offend in their daily life, rational choice theory (Clarke & Felson, 1993) which suggests offenders make a cost v risk analysis and crime pattern theory (Brantingham & Brantingham, 1981) which is a merging of the two previous theories. Along with the assumptions of distance decay (the belief that offenders are more inclined to commit crimes close to their anchor point and that the greater the distance from their anchor point they travel, the less likely they are to commit a crime) and domocentricity, the belief that offender commits crimes in locations near to their home (Bruinsma, Van Daele & Vander Beken, 2012).
Distance decay incorporates the journey-to-crime theory (JTC) which suggests that the length of time an offender will travel to commit a crime varies depending on the crime, i.e. violent crimes will be committed close to home and crimes such as car theft will be committed further away (O’Leary, 2011) suggesting that all offenders act in the same way. JTC also includes the mean and median centres of crimes, mobility triangles, centre of minimum distance and the circle hypothesis which expects that the offender’s anchor point will be somewhere between the two crimes furthest from each other (Curtis, Kent & Leitner, 2006). For offenders who operate between these guidelines geographical
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