The following concepts apply in these ways to Dr. Tabor’s research.

Random Sample: A random sample is one that fairly represents a population, as each member has an equal chance of being included. Random sampling isn’t used in Dr. Tabors research. She wished to investigate the relationship between alertness and sleep in university students, but only gave her survey to 150 freshmen in her psychology class. Each member of a university was not given an equal chance of being included in the survey, and thus isn’t a random sample. The sample that she selected would be unrepresentative of an entire American university student body.

Scatterplot: A scatterplot is a graphed set of dots, where each dot represents the values of two variables. In Dr. Tabor’s study, these would be the levels of alertness and sleep. The placement of the points would indicate a positive or negative correlation, and the strength of the correlation. On one axis of the scatterplot she would put the levels of alertness and on the other she would put the amount of sleep in hours. Because the correlation coefficient is +0.89, we know that the correlation is a strong positive one. This means that the scatterplot would have very little scatter, and would be
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As Dr. Tabor is doing a survey, she would need to avoid using words with positive or negative connotations and try to use words with neutral connotations, even if they mean the same thing. For example, if she were to ask “On a scale of one to ten, ten being the most, how lazy are you?,” someone would be more likely to respond negatively than if she were to ask “On a scale of one to ten, ten being the most, how relaxed are you?” Even though the words ‘lazy’ and ‘relaxed’ mean close to the same thing, ‘lazy’ is negatively connotated and ‘relaxed’ is positively connotated, resulting in different

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