Drosophila melanogaster or fruit fly in general terms, was one of the earliest organisms that were used for genetics analysis by scientists. The reasons behind the use of this species are due to its small size, short generation time and the ability of females to lay a lot of eggs. Since Drosophila melanogaster has been studied in 1900, this have brought a large contribution to genetic studies and particularly used as model organisms in the Human Genome Project. In recent years, the whole genome of Drosophila melanogaster was sequenced and this bring innovations for scientists for deeper genetic analysis1. This helps another experiment which was conducted following the aforementioned study. The scientists studied the human disease-associated gene sequences in Drosophila melanogaster. They performed a systematic blast analysis of about 1000 human gene of diseases and associated mutant alleles against the complete genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster. This analysis significantly helps promote interaction between individuals and Drosophila melanogaster research scientists and accelerate the understanding of the pathogenesis of human genetic diseases2. The previous example shows that Drosophila melanogaster is helpful in investigating on human genetic diseases, so an experiment was done by Drosophila melanogaster serves as a model of the well-known Parkinson’s disease3. By identifying the mutant gene, the model recapitulates the necessary features of human disorder and
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In this experiment we tested to see what the offspring of an unknown cross of an F1 generation would produce. After observing the F2 generation and recording the data we found some of the Drosophila showed mutations, two in particular. The mutations were the apterus wings, and sepia eyes. After collecting our data through observation, a Chi-test was conducted resulting in a Chi-value of 5.1 and a p-value of .2. Since the p-value was greater than 0.05, there was no significant change in the data. This proved that the Drosophila flies still followed the Mendelian genetics of a 9:3:3:1 ratio.
Throughout this experiment a number of random and procedural errors were apparent; these errors could have affected the results of the experiment in a number of ways. One experimental error that occurred during the experiment was that some flies became stuck in the food source and died. The main cause of this was the fact that the fly vials were stood up (vertically) before the flies had fully recovered from the anaesthetic. This could be overcome in future experiments by ensuring that the vials are kept horizontal until all of the flies fully recover from the anaesthetic.
The parents are both homozygous. The homozygous dominant would represent the wild type. And the homozygous recessive would represent the other fly parent of a different strain. The F1 generation would consist of 100% Wild Type but they would all be heterozygous in carrying the recessive gene.
Introduction: The intention of this lab was to gain a better understanding of Mendelian genetics and inheritance patterns of the drosophila fruit fly. This was tasked through inspecting phenotypes present in the dihybrid crosses performed on the flies. An experimental virtual fly lab assignment was also used to analyze the inheritance patterns. Specifically, the purpose of our drosophila crosses is to establish which phenotypes are dominant/recessive, if the traits are inherited through autosome or sex chromosomes and whether independent assortment or linkage is responsible for the expressed traits.
It would be expected that the mutant F1 flies would be heterozygous for the allele responsible for the grounded trait. If two F1 flies were mated, the percentage of flies that would be expected to be wildtype in the F2 generation would be 25% mutants given that the mutant allele (ap) is predicted to be recessive and, leaving 75% to be wildtype (ap+).
Genes can either be sex-linked or autosomal. If a gene appears mostly in one sex chances are the gene is sex-linked and if it appears frequently in both sexes it is most likely autosomal. Using Drosophila melanogaster, also known as the fruit fly, we will determine whether the gene is sex-linked or autosomal. Drosophila melanogasters have a relatively short life span and are an excellent organism for genetic studies because it has simple food requirements, occupies little space, is hardy, completes its life cycle in about 12 days at room temperature, produces large numbers of offspring, can be immobilized readily for examination and
This lab was a simulation of the capture and recapture and counting of birds. For example the West Nile Virus infected many birds and they would test the amount of birds with the virus, this is the way they would keep up on the spread of the virus. We tested the concept of the census and counting of all birds in a certain area. We used the beans which were marked and some werent.
Fruit Fly experiment was conducted by using different techniques. One of the main things was to examine the fruit flies and identify the difference between females and males, identify their mutation if they were wild type, white eye, vestigial or white and vestigial combined together. These Fruit flies were kept in the incubator at 25°C for about 6 days. The main goal for this experiment was to observe the principles of Mendelian genetics.
The Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal organism most often used to study genes and mutations. The genome of the D. melanogaster, is similar to that of humans, making it the very beneficial to study. Through the studies done on the fruit fly, we are able to get a better understanding as to the processes of modern issues such as Alzheimer’s and cancer, in order to study and develop cures. Not only is the D. melanogaster an ideal organism based on its genetic similarities to human genetics,
Studies on the genetics of other animals, such as fruit flies, can reveal more about the genes of other animals, including humans. After crossing the flies, a hypothesis can be made based on the data obtained on whether the traits are autosomal, sex-linked, recessive, or dominant. Methods Prior to this experiment, the vials used to hold the Drosophila melanogaster were made.
Abstract Drosophila melanogaster have been tested on by scientists for over a hundred years. Research on these flies have come to be the foundation of genetic studies everywhere (“Drosophila melanogaster”). In this experiment two environments were created where wild type and vestigial Drosophila melanogaster reproduced over multiple generations. One environment has a simulated predator and the other does not.
Drosophila melanogastor were one of the first organisms chosen to be analyzed and study, since they are the work force of the genetics research. Back in the early 1900s, researchers such as T.H. Morgan, H.J. Muller, E. Weischaus, and C. Nisslein-Volhard were able to use the organisms to determine how genes are inherited, how radiation causes DNA damage, and there are genes that controls human development. In 2000, scientists found over a hundred genes that can be used to study human diseases because they found a way to sequence the drosophila genome. This organism has been used for scientific research for decades and is continued to be used because they help scientists and researchers understand how human processes and their disorders. With the experiment, crossing the flies is to demonstrate the inheritance pattern of a single and double trait.
The two species concepts that are used in this case are the biological and morphological species concepts. The biological species concept defines a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring, but cannot successfully interbreed with members of other species. The morphological species concept states that a species is defined by measurable anatomical standards. No the apple maggot flies are not distinct as a species from hawthorn maggot flies. The apple and hawthorn maggot flies cannot be distinguished from each other physically but they differ genetically. These two organisms are not geographically or physically but they differ genetically.
In this strange land, life has mutated. Whether fruit flies consume flesh and lay their young, or leaf rust creating lesions and shriveled skin, thousands of common plant ailments are affecting humans. The affected humans have become extremely sensitive to pesticides, and struggle to survive while being ostracized for their appearance.