1. One of the unique features of human is the ability to regulate and adjust emotions on particular situational demands. What happen when we get angry but cannot express it? Or when we feel upset but have to try to be fine? Under some circumstances like these examples, we regulate our emotions. Emotion regulation(ER) refers to the capacity to control and manage one’s emotional reaction in order to achieve a goal-directed outcome. We know coping, reappraisal, or suppression as some typical tactics of managing emotions, but how these types of regulation strategies differ among individuals, and how cultural values can be related to the preference of use of different strategies? This study will provide a general idea beyond the basic understanding of ER by comparing individual difference on emotion-related cultural value with regulation strategies.
This study focuses on emotion related values based on the Hofstede model of six dimensions of national cultures (power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, long/short term orientation, and indulgence/restraint), by only focusing on long/short-term orientation and uncertainty avoidance as emotion-related cultural values. Short/long-term orientation refers to the perspective of whether or not looking at the future. Short-term orientated people tend to emphasize on the current time and believe important events in life occur in the past or now. They also tend to attribute both success and
Understanding the differences and similarities inherent in other cultures may provide opportunities when working with individuals (or groups) who may have different cultural values, beliefs, and/or norms. There are multiple ways to explore different cultures. One way is through Hofstede’s (2017) cultural dimension; which are currently made up of six broad categories, including high-low power distance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-short term orientation, and indulgence-restraint. It is beyond the scope of this paper to explore all these cultural dimensions in great detail; however, it is important to understand some of the implications of these scores. The scores for both the US and China can be seen in Table 1, along with the differences between each score.
Emotion regulation involves intrinsic and extrinsic processing of monitoring and modifying emotional reactions in both positive or negative situations (Martins, 2012). In order for individuals to have the ability to regulate emotions, they must beware of their emotions. Although infants are unaware and lack the ability to regulate their emotions, it then becomes the role of a primary carer to nurture the infant, thus acting as a model for regulating emotions. Evidently, infants grow to reflect the ways in which their carers control and modify their emotions as well as social boundaries. Furthermore, emotion regulation is considered an important aspect of an individuals life as it 'can moderate emotions and keep them in a manageable range
A person’s culture has a great influence on his or her self-identity and behavior. Culture encompasses many aspects, and is defined by Juang and Matsumoto (2011) as a, “unique meaning and information system, shared by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and well-being, and derive meaning from life” (p. 15). As discussed in lecture, different dimensions of culture are identified by Geert Hofstede and different values of culture are identified by Shalom Schwartz (K. Whitten, personal communication, January 14, 2016). The level of emphasis placed on these dimensions and values result in the expression of a unique culture. I interviewed
The mediator variable emotion regulation will be measured using the The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) (Gross & John, 2003). The self-report scale consists of ten statements to assess how participants regulate and manage their emotions by measuring two emotion regulation strategies; cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Cognitive reappraisal is the process of reshaping thoughts in emotion-eliciting situations to change its emotional impact and expressive suppression is hiding or inhibiting emotional responses in emotion-eliciting situations (Gross & John, 2003). Participants answer statements using a 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree according to how 'true for you' the item is. Higher scores indicate greater levels of emotion regulation strategy. An example of an item is "When I'm faced with a stressful situation, I make myself think about it in a way that helps me stay calm". The scale has good test-retest reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73) and good internal reliability (reappraisal Cronbach's alpha = 0.79; suppression Cronbach's alpha =0.73) (Gross & John,
According to Gross (1998), the effect of any given emotion coping strategy can be comprehended in terms of the stage of emotion generation sequence that it impacts specifically in this framework. Cognitive reappraisal focuses on the examination organize and includes changing an individual's understandings or evaluations of emotional boosts. This technique is known to be very much contemplated in light of the fact that reappraisal is exceedingly successful at controlling effect and physiological excitement without the intellectual and physiological expenses connected with reaction centered methodologies, and with longer-enduring impacts than attention-focused strategies (Gross, 1998)
To better understand the differences as well as the similarities in cultural value orientations, Geert Hofstede’s Values Dimensions have broken down the concept of diverse cultural patterns that explains perceptual and communication differences using 6 categories: individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, masculinity/ femininity, long-term/short-term orientation, and indulgence/ restraint. The purpose of this analysis is to compare the affect on intercultural communications using the cultural value orientations of New Zealanders and the culture that I identify with, the U.S. American culture.
Emotion regulation refers to any attempted process, successful or unsuccessful, that acts upon the emotion. Emotions may be positive (e.g., happy, proud) or negative (e.g., sad, anxious) in valence and can also vary in intensity, with the same stimulus evoking different responses in individuals. For example, a picture of a dog might evoke joy for a dog-lover and fear for someone afraid of dogs. Even the same person may experience different emotions depending on the context. If someone’s dog has just died, seeing a picture of a dog could evoke sadness and longing. Imagine that an adolescent girl sees two of her peers whispering and snickering during lunch. This event may trigger multiple emotional reactions, including the experience of anxiety and sadness. Consider the variety of processes this girl could engage in and how they might affect her emotions; she could dwell on and brood about the experience, prolonging her sadness; she could think about the situation differently (e.g., as having nothing to do with her), diminishing her sadness; she could do something to distract herself from her emotions (e.g., eat lunch), temporarily alleviating her anxiety; and/or she could worry about what the girls are saying, maintaining her anxiety. There are many more possibilities and each one may lead to a cascade of interactions within the adolescent and her interaction with
The purpose of this research proposal is to study the family’s role in an individual’s ability to regulate their emotions and the positive or negatives outcomes in adulthood. Studies provide a multitude of research on children’s responses to family emotional regulation. The research of emotional regulation is significant in providing therapy to individuals who are negatively affected from familial roles in emotional development causing issues with social and behavioral regulation.
Emotion regulation is the occurrence of when an emotion is happening to an individual and how one expresses it. The process mode, (Gross, 2014)l introduces five main ideas that regulate one’s emotions. Gross explains that there are five concepts in the model, which represents five families of an emotion regulation process, (Gross, 2014). The five main concepts are situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change and response modulation. (Gross, 2014) The model displays a movement from left to right, which gives the idea of movement through time, (Gross, 2014), According to Gross (2014) “situation is selected, modified, attended to, appraised, and yields a particular set of emotional regulation,” (Gross,
Personal, organizational, and cultural values are the basis of an individual's personal and professional decision-making style. These values are the key ingredients that make up our core beliefs. Values are ideas that are actions which could be right or wrong, good or bad that are the basis of human action (Tosi 2000). Personal values might also be called morality, since they reflect general expectations of any person in any society, acting in any capacity. These are the principles we try to instill in our children, and expect of one another without needing to articulate the expectation or formalize the process in any way. Family is the first school for a child where the seeds of cultural
Dr. Hofstede performed a comprehensive study of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. In the 1970’s, as a Dutch researcher Dr. Geert Hofstede, collected and analyzed data from 116,000 surveys taken from IBM employees in forty different countries around the world. From those results, Hofstede developed a model that identifies four primary dimensions of differentiate cultures. These include: Uncertainty Avoidance (UA), Masculinity-Femininity (MAS), Individualism-Collectivism (IND), Power and Distance (PD). After a further study of the Asian culture by researcher Michael Bond in 1991, Hofstede added a fifth dimension in his theory, Long- and Short-term time orientation (LTO), also referred to as the Confucian Dynamism. His research has framed how cultural differences can be used in professional business transactions. Geert Hofstede 's dimensions analysis can assist the business person in better understanding the intercultural differences within regions and between countries.
At the core of temporary debates pertinent to the Globalization discourse lies the diverging paradigm of governance through persuasive or coercive power. Some of the most common methods that employ these powers are implicit like the usage of ideologies, but they can also be explicit like the execution of laws. Both ways of governing play a bureaucratic role in the transformation of cultures. These changes have resulted in the spread of beliefs associated with Modernity; a dimension of Globalization which is often thought of as a set of principles indispensable to a contemporary society that lives in the future and therefore is open to innovative ways. Drawing from “State of play: The political ontology of sport in Amazonian Peru” written by Harry Walker and from “Sincerity versus Self-expression: Modern Creative Agency and the Materiality of Semiotic Forms” by Eitan Wilf I will outline cultural transformation through a habituated embodiment of Modernity principles. While both articles touch on socialization processes involved in the rise of Modernity among indigenous cultures, deontological ethical systems of morality composed of rules and standards like the ones Walker makes reference to are enforced through organized activities whereas normative ethical systems that Wilf touches upon, which adhere to merit of actions themselves are imposed through semiotics.
In the next paragraphs I will consider some theories, factors and evidence on cognitive controlling of emotion in terms of
This essay will discuss the influence of cultural dimensions on behavior. A cultural dimension is defined as a perspective of a culture based on its values and cultural norms. In particular, Hofstede’s cultural dimension of individualism vs. collectivism will be discussed. Individualism vs collectivism is defined as the preference of a person only being concerned about oneself and looking after oneself, compared to a person who wants to remain in a closely knitted network. These are some terms with definitions which will be used in this essay: the Asch paradigm, which refers to the studies conducted by Solomon Asch, in which he showed his participants different lines and asked them to verbally judge and respond as to what the length of the
They conducted the study in two countries: India, a collectivistic culture, and Australia, an individualistic culture, where they determined participants’ orientations with the 27-item Triandis & Gelfand scale (1998); emotional intelligence with the 33-item Assessing Emotions Scale (Schutte et al., 1998) where it’s broken down into three major factors: perception, managing own emotions, managing others’ emotions (Ciarrochi, Deane, & Anderson, 2002); mental health using the 21-item version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 2002); satisfaction with life using the 5-item Satisfaction with Life scale (SWS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985).