Uropathogenic Escherichia coli is a strain of bacteria that is defined as primary the causative agent of infections in the urinary tract. Many strains of this bacteria are specifically adapted to overcome host defenses. The signs of a potential urinary tract infection include inflammation and shedding of the epithelial cells that line the urinary bladder. Importance
Study into this field is crucial for human and animal populations around the world. The importance of studying this organism includes, but is not limited to: developing a technique of how to combat active infections, understanding how the organism penetrates a host’s defenses, and to develop practices that will prevent repetitive infections.
Uropathogenic species of microorganisms are extremely resistant to medical treatments. More recent studies have shown that even with the implementation of antibiotics reservoirs of bacteria can survive. A reservoir refers to any place or substance that can harbor infectious agents under normal circumstances. The term is typically used in microbiology to reference the source of infections agents that can infect individuals.
Urinary Tract Infections have a large net effect on a variety of populations around the world. The disease is highly frequent and associated medical costs are also high. It is estimated that approximately one third of the female population in America will be plagued with at least one Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) before they reach the age
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Esherichia coli also known as E. coli is a bacterium that lives in your gut. (1). it was founded by Theodore von Esherich in 1888. There are many people that can get the bacteria. Also there are thousands of strands of E.coli. Six E. coli O157 outbreaks were identified during 2007. Four of the outbreaks involved foodborne transmission. (Eshericha Coli). Six Minnesota cases and one Wisconsin case with the same or closely-related PFGE subtype of E. coli O157:H7, and an additional Minnesota case of Shiga-toxin producing E. coli that was not culture-confirmed, attended the Minnesota State Fair in August. All but one of the cases showed cattle or visited the cattle
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (2017), “Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the fourth most common type of healthcare-associated infection, with an estimated 93,300 UTIs in acute care hospitals in 2011. UTIs additionally account for more than 12% of infections reported by acute care hospitals. Virtually all healthcare-associated UTIs are caused by instrumentation of the urinary tract” (p. 7-1).
Urinary tract infections are one of the most hospital-acquired infections in the country. With so much technology and evidence based practice, why is this still an ongoing problem worldwide? Could it simply be the basics of hygiene or just patient negligence? The purpose of this paper is to identify multiple studies that have been done to reduce or prevent hospital associated urinary tract infections. In these articles you will find the use of different interventions that will aid in lowering the risk of these hospital acquired infections.
A sample of the patients bacteria causing the urinary tract infection can only be used if a urine sample is bacteriologically viable (1 Radar). Infected urine and sterile urine are common samples used for the diagnosis of patients (1 Radar). It is important to gain further knowledge of multiple organisms’ resistance to antibiotics that cause urinary tract infections (1Radar). Escherichia coli has distinct characteristics and structures that help identify their unique properties (2 Johnson). Escherichia coli is the most common and most prevalent bacteria present in the fecal flora of the human colon (2 Johnson). Because of Escherichia coli unique ability to overcome the obstacles of a new environment, it makes easy for bacteria to spread into the urinary tract and produce a discomforting infection (2 Johnson). All research conducted lead to the belief that Escherichia coli was the Enterobacteriaceae pathogen causing the UTI in the patient. In order to confirm this prediction a set of differential tests and biochemical test must be conducted.
E.coli was the cause of UTIs. E.coli was difficult to treat because as soon a patient would reach the hospital the bacteria would have already reached the bloodstream.
The four specific databases that were used in this research are, Cinahl, Medline, Joanna Briggs and Cochrane Library. All of these databases were chosen because they provided up to date peer reviewed evidence that was relevant to the search terms. This ensures that the evidence that was found was relevant and reliable. The Cinahl website was useful to gather background information on the topic such as how a UTI is contracted and how it effects the body. The Cochrane Library and Medline website was useful to because it gave specific information on studies that had already been done by other researchers. This helped to ensure that the study that is being undertaken was searching for the right results.
E. coli bacteria normally lies in the intestinal tract of people and animals. In most cases, E. coli is a harmless bacterium and even serves as an essential part of a healthy human intestinal tract. However, there are multiple types of E. coli and some are pathogenic, meaning they can cause illness. Pathogenic E. coli strains are categorized into six pathotypes: STEC, EHEC, ETEC, EPEC, EAEC, EIEC, and DAEC. Pathogenic forms of E. coli bacteria are able to infiltrate, grow and live in a variety of foods and beverages. Once a food or beverage is contaminated and then consumed, the individual who has consumed it is at risk of an E. coli infection.
Proteus vulgaris also produces urease which can increase the chances of pyelonephritis. It does this by hydrolyzing urea to ammonia, which in turn, makes urine more basic. The basic environment allows the bacteria to survive and flourish (NCBI, 2008). Another important virulence factor includes the microbe’s motility. It moves by a mechanism called swarming, which is defined as a rapid surface movement by use of rotating flagella. The swarming effect allows the bacteria to move about the host in great numbers (NCBI, 2010). The combination of fimbriae, urease production and swarming favors the production of urinary tract infections.
Most urinary tract infections are primarily caused by bacteria that live in the bowel region of the body. The bacterium Escherichia coli, commonly referred to as “E. coli”, causes most UTIs. The urinary tract has several systems to prevent infection. The points where the ureters attach to the bladder act as only one way valves to prevent urine from moving back up toward the kidneys. Urination is intended to wash microbes and any infectious bacteria out of the body. In males, the prostate gland produces secretions that slow down bacterial growth in the urinary tract. In both woman and men, immune defenses try to prevent infections, but despite these safety procedures put in place by the body, infections still do occur in some individuals.
After microorganisms enter the patient’s body they can go to the lungs and cause pneumonia. Central line-bloodstream infections occur when microorganism enter the bloodstream by the intravenous line. Microorganisms are transfer into the blood stream by inadequate hand hygiene or improper intravenous fluid, tubing, and site care practice. Multidrug-resistant organisms can cause infections of the blood, skin, or organ systems. These infections can arise due to the overuse or misuse of antibiotics, which can result in the microorganisms becoming more resistant to antibiotic therapy. Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus and Clostridium difficile are examples of this kind of infection. Health care employees need to know the different types of hospital acquired infections and how they are spread to be able to effectively prevent them.
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of a large number of bacteria in the urine without the usual symptoms of burning or frequent urination.