Evolution of Microbial Resistance Essay

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Evolution of Microbial Resistance Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic drug in which it was originally sensitive to. Resistant organisms are able to withstand attack by antimicrobial drugs such as antibiotics, antifungals, and antivirals which makes standard treatment procedures ineffective. Antimicrobial resistance is something that has evolved naturally via natural selection through random mutations, it can also be achieved by applying an evolutionary stress on a population. Once a gene mutation is generated, bacteria can then transfer genetic information horizontally, between individuals, by plasmid exchange. When a microorganism carries multiple resistance genes, it is…show more content…
One reason we see the use of first-line medications, such as penicillin is due to the fact that they are easily made and cheaper to produce. When pathogens become resistant to first-line medications, health care providers are forced to use more expensive therapeutic measures. The longer an illness lasts, the longer the treatment must last as well, increasing health-care costs and putting a bigger economic burden on families and society. Antimicrobial resistance also has an effect on health-care gains to society, as it can limit the success of treatments such as organ transplantation, chemotherapy and major surgeries if antimicrobials are ineffective for care and prevention of infections. Lastly, there are more threats to global health security, as global trade allows microorganisms to be spread quicker and farther through immigration and food. Although the development of antimicrobial resistant pathogens is a natural phenomenon, some human actions have accelerated the emergence and spread of these pathogens. One reason for the increased number of resistant microorganisms is the patterns of antibiotic usage. Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as cephalosporins, has greatly increased the development of methicillin resistance. Other factors which have contributed towards resistance include incorrect diagnosis from doctors,
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