Factors Affecting Prevalence And Treatment Outcomes Of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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Factors Affecting Prevalence and Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Rwanda

Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough
Insulin (impaired insulin secretion) or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced (insulin resistance) resulting in increased blood glucose (“Endocrine System.” Internal Medicine Clinical
Treatment Guidelines. Republic of Rwanda Ministry of Health, 2012 ). Symptoms include frequent urination, lethargy, excessive thirst and hunger (Mukeshimana et al., 2013).

There are four main etiological and clinical classes of diabetes mellitus ;

- Type 1 diabetes which result from beta cell destruction, usually leads
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Mortality attributable to diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa is estimated in 2010, at 6% of total mortality, an increase from 2.2-2.5% in 2000. In addition to the present challenges of resources depletion, low-income countries now face the double burden of communicable diseases (e.g. HIV / AIDS) and non-communicable diseases (e.g. diabetes) (Mbanya et al., 2010).

Objectives
1. To determine the prevalence of T2DM in Rwanda
2. To assess available treatment options and their reach
3. To determine the factors affecting treatment outcomes of T2DM in Rwanda

Problem Statement Diabetes affects people worldwide and poses major public health and socioeconomic challenges. The disorder was previously thought to be rare or undocumented in rural Africa, but over the past decades it has emerged as an important non-communicable disease in sub-Saharan Africa.

Literature Review In 2013, the prevalence of T2DM which accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes was relatively low at 4.9% in the Africa region. Diabetes figures in the Africa region are projected to increase with the number of individuals with the condition rising from 19.8 million in 2013 to 41.5 million in 2035, representing
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