Factors that affect how the PH changes during a titration experiment. Concentration of the alkali Having a higher concentration of alkali will mean that there will be more molecules closer together for the acid to collide with. This will speed up the reaction as collision theory suggests that molecules have to collide to react and if there are more molecules to collide with the reaction will happen faster as there is a higher chance of a collision. Volume of alkali An increase in volume would mean that the neutralisation would take longer as you would need an equal amount of the same strength acid in order to neutralise it. Furthermore in collision theory if there is a bigger space that the molecules are in then the molecules are less …show more content…
Furthermore it is transparent so I can easily see the colour change. White tile I will use a white tile as it will enable me to see the colours much easier than on a tile of another colour such as red or black. Measuring cylinder This will enable me to measure out 25mlᵌ of alkali into the conical flask. Funnel A funnel will allow me to pour the acid into the burette without it spilling which will limit safety hazards. Hydrochloric acid 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 molar 50cmᵌ for each test. This is the acid that we are allowed to use and the highest concentration we can have is 1 molar to limit risks. Furthermore the school already has 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 molar already made up. Moreover I have picked five equally spaced concentrations because I will need I large range of results to identify a trend which will be easier if I have equally spaced concentrations. Furthermore I have not used over 1M because it is safer. Sodium Hydroxide 1.0 molar 25cmᵌ for each test I will use this because it is already made up by the school. Furthermore it will limit risks as it is diluted sodium hydroxide. Burette holder I will use this so the burette does not slip over which could break it or spill acid making the test unrepeatable. Clamp stand I will use this so that I can clamp the burette onto it with the holder. This will stop the burette falling over and keep it upright so the acid flows properly. Universal
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The measuring cylinder was then used to accurately measure out 20 mL of water, which was then poured into the test tube that would be used for the experiment. The test tube was then placed into the clamp, which was then adjusted in order to make sure that the test tube was grasped firmly and would not fall out.
The hypothesis is; as we know the concentration of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) we can obtain the concentration of hydrochloric acid using the titration of a standard solution.
1. Gather appropriate lab equipment and secure a safe workspace with open ventilation, away from children and pets. All chemicals will be combined in the 96 well plate. Don’t contaminate end of pipet with other chemicals.
In order for the media to show the change in acidity the solutions are modified and include an indicator chemical. This indicator will change color depending on the ph level of the media it is in. For all the media used in this experiment, the indicator changes to a yellow color when in the presence of an acid and turns magenta/pink when in the presence of a base or alkali.
5.Position gas collecting hose so it runs from reaction vessel through gas collecting box to opening of the graduated cylinder. The idea is that any gas coming through the tube will rise in the graduated cylinder and displace the water in it.
Volumetric burette: This instrument was filled with the sodium hydroxide solution that would be gradually added to the vinegar solution. The burette was used instead of a measuring cylinder as it gives a finer volume
19. Stir the solution with a toothpick and observe any changes. Measure the pH of the new solution and record into Table 2.
3.Secure the other end of the tube into the hole located on the rubber stopper
the stopcock to release the pressure. Close the stopcock, shake the funnel several times, and again release the pressure through the stopcock (see Technique 12, Section
Caution – Hydrochloric acid is corrosive to eyes, skin and clothes. Wearing a lab apron, rubber gloves, goggles, and a face shield is essential. Rinse any spills on skin or clothing with plenty of cold water. Clean up spills immediately – ask your instructor for help.
Gather the following lab equipment: Goggles, test tubes, 24 well plate, Gas assembly with copper and plastic tubing and a #00 stopper, short stem pipet, rubber stopper #00 with one hole and a pipet tip with plastic gas delivery tube, 2 small tables of AlkaSeltzer, 4mL Bromothymol blue .04%, 20 mL hydrochloric acid, 4-6 pieces of manganese metal, 4-6 pieces of mossy zinc, and 3 pipet bulbs.
If the acid is made more concentrated there are more particles, which means collisions are more likely. So, the higher the concentration, the quicker the reaction time is. Temperature also affects the rate of reaction. If the temperature is increased, the particles move quicker so more collisions happen. This means the higher the temperature, the