2. A chest X-ray and CT scan result demonstrated a cavitation of the right lower pulmonary lobe. This result alone along with Bob’s history of smoking is a big red flag related to lung cancer. Bob’s history reveals that he has been smoking a ½ pack or more per day for 37 years. According to a study done on the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of lung cancer, habitual smokers have the highest risk of developing cancer of the lung than any other cancer (Herth, Eberhardt, Ernst, 2006). The study also concludes that a related association with lung cancer is swelling of the tissue, lung tumors and/cavitation, lymph in the bronchioles, and paratracheal areas. The swelling can lead to an obstructed airway, which matches Bob’s symptoms as well. Chest pain, stridor, and chest pain are all indications of complications in the respiratory system.
The radiologist report says, “the appearance is suspicious for malignancy, and further evaluation with PET CT is recommended.” The report on the PET scan states that the cardiophrenic mass had increased FDG uptake; the smaller nodules did not. The accuracy of this type of scan is limited on nodules under one centimeter, which many of them were on this patient. Due to this, it was undetermined if there was metastasis or not. It was also found on the PET scan that one of the patient’s ovaries was enlarged and had some FDG uptake there as well. A pelvic ultrasound was recommended as this was a concern for an ovarian
“Inflammation is a nonspecific, defensive response of the body to tissue damage” says J.Tortora & Derrickson (2011), it is an effort
Lung inflammation will be scored by a treatment-blind observer. The degree of peribronchial and perivascular inflammation will be evaluated on a subjective scale of 0-3, as described previously . Briefly, A value of 0: no inflammation is detectable; a value of 1: occasional cuffing with inflammatory cells; a value of 2: most bronchi or vessels are surrounded by a thin layer (one to five cells thick) of inflammatory cells; a value of 3: majority of bronchi or vessels are surrounded by a thick layer (more than five cells thick) of inflammatory cells. Total lung inflammation will be defined as the average of the peribronchial and perivascular inflammation scores. Five lung sections per mouse will be scored and inflammation scores will be expressed as a mean
Most of the food we eat converts to glucose in our bodies. Glucose is absorbed in our cells to provide energy. Most of this energy is used by the brain and heart and in any other areas of the body where there is activity. When Fluroine-18 is prepared it is attached to a form of glucose called 2-deoxyglucose. This forms 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose or FDG, when given to a patient the body assumes it is glucose and sends it to the brain, heart and other active body parts.
Thank you for forwarding a copy of a recent CT chest scan that reveals a number of sub-5mm pulmonary nodules with calcification that were noted
Magnitudes of studies have compared the diagnostic value of CT, PET and PET/CT in correctly identifying benign from malignant pulmonary nodules. The goal of imaging is to assist doctors in treating nodules that are malignant and aggressive in nature. On the other hand, it would be wise to avoid invasive procedures and tissue biopsies for patients who are confirmed to have a benign mass. This would reduce unwanted morbidity and added expenses for treatment (13).
INTRODUCTION The links between cancer and inflammation, being the protective response of the tissues of the human body to irritation caused by an injury, a virus, or bacteria, and which may be acute or
The echinococcus granulosus has been described as the most frequent cause of the hydatid cysts. Humans are the incidental intermediate host. Larvae emerge from the eggs in the intestine; and after invasion to the blood vessels, they can migrate into almost every part of the body.The usual destination is the liver via the portal tract, but sometimes the larvae pass through the liver barrier and reach the lungs and all the other viscera, where they transform into small cysts.The cyst of echinococcus is a rare finding in pelvic sites.Dissemination via lymphatic or systemic circulation has been implicated as a possible route to produce primary hydatid diseases outside the liver and lung.. In our case the ovarian hydatid cyst is most probably a secondary one, due to a spontaneously or iatrogenic rupture of the hepatic cyst removed 3 years earlier. Pelvic echinococcosis symptomatology is non-specific and can include abdominal tumefactions, abdominal pain, menstruation irregularities, infertility and urinary disturbances. Ovarian echinococcosis can simulate either polycystic disease or malignancy.. On USG, it mimics cystic ovarian disease or a solid ovarian mass.A high grade of suspicion or a preoperative diagnosis of echinococcus cyst makes it possible to avoid an intraoperative iatrogenic rupture, and when available, to administer previously an
inflammatory response, the adaptive immune system can adapt itself to the pathogen in order to enhance the recognition, the memory and the elimination of a certain pathogen by
Fructose is naturally occurring monosaccharide found in fruits, honey, table sugar and some vegetables. High consumption of fructose has been linked to diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, increased blood pressure, increased adipose tissue, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. Most of the absorbed fructose is metabolized by the liver with the remaining being absorbed by the kidney and adipose tissue. Fructose is able to enter the cell through the glucose transporters, GLUT5 or GLUT2 that are both expressed highly in the proximal tubule of the kidney. In order for fructose to be metabolized, it must be phosphorylated by fructose kinase, ketohexokinase (KHK), which is highly expressed in the proximal tubules. We wanted to determine
Malignant cancers often exhibit fundamentally altered cellular energetics, conferring advantages to tumor cells by reprogramming the metabolism to support neoplastic proliferation and promote biosynthesis of macromolecules. Deregulated cellular energetics is observed quite widely across a number of human cancers, and is therefore considered a hallmark of cancer. The role of metabolism in cancer has been a topic of interest since the early 1920s when Otto Warburg proposed the Warburg Effect. Under normal conditions, cells metabolize glucose through oxidative phosphorylation and the TCA cycle. However, cancer cells often exhibit increased anaerobic glycolysis. Although glycolysis is less efficient than the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, it is faster and produces many of the precursor building blocks necessary for the cancer cells to fulfill the metabolic demands of rapidly proliferating cells. Additionally, TCA cycle intermediates are often used in cancer as precursors for macromolecule biosynthesis. Altered energetics can be further observed in
Though there are various forms of mature granulomas and different causes for development, the key feature of the inflammatory masses is characterised by the primary cell types involved. This includes; foamy cells, uninfected epithelioid macrophages, giant multinucleated cells and CD4+ T cells (T-helper, or Th, lymphocytes). Though there are other immune cells involved (i.e. fibroblasts, neutrophils, etc) these primary cell types affect the function of the granuloma’s development and function and play a vital role in the effectiveness of walling off bacterium for eradication. Within a mature granuloma, these primary cell populations form a
Our body has a natural response to fight off infection is inflammation so that’s why when we have an infection we typically have inflammation as well. The organisms that invade our body put off a toxin that dilate and leak from our capillaries and this attracts our white blood cells and causes and inflammatory response.
3. Advantages and Setbacks of PET Positron emission tomography is primarily used in the area of medicine and research study. It has been influential in finding the cure for many diseases including Alzheimer’s and cancer. The positron emitting glucose analog, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) has helped in the diagnosis, staging, and monitoring therapeutic response in various cancers. The metabolic imaging assessment is very helpful in providing important clinical data which in turn improves the patient management . It is proved that the FDG-PET scan has better sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy when compared to CT imaging in most cancer patients.