Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease : A Literature Review

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Literature Review Abstract: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common illness affecting approximately 20-40% of adults.1 The symptoms of GERD vary considerably in severity and are primarily caused by highly acidic gastric juice from the stomach ascending into the esophagus.1 Frequent episodes of GERD are strongly associated with Barrett’s esophagus (BE), a condition caused by the metaplastic transformation of normal squamous epithelial cells to columnar epithelial cells in the lower esophagus.2 Although BE is considered premalignant, the risk of developing the deadly esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) increases nearly 40 times in patients with BE lesions.2 PubMed database searches were screened to…show more content…
This study was selected because it included two phases, used calculated regression models for data interpretation, and had a large number of participants (n=4,880). The 2012 article by Ashktorab et al.4 was selected because it was the largest study (n=2,020) analyzing the prevalence of H. pylori in African Americans. In the United States, H. pylori colonization of the stomach is 2-3 times higher among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans.3 NHANES data from 1999-2000 showed that the age-adjusted rates of positive serological tests among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans were 21.2%, 52.0%, and 64.0%, respectively.3 Furthermore, these data show significant declines in the prevalence of H. pylori only among non-Hispanic whites from 1988-1991 to 1999-2000 (Odds ratio=1.38).3 Ashktorab et al.4 documented a 38 % prevalence of H. pylori among African Americans receiving care at Howard University hospital between January 2004 and December 2007.4 Grad et al.3 drew rational conclusions using multivariate logistic models to adjust for age, socioeconomic status, and country of birth. On the other hand, Ashktorab et al.4 drew conclusions on a smaller homogenous population receiving care at one hospital. For instance, they conclude that H. pylori colonization is inversely associated with esophagitis, based on the colonization rate in the esophagitis group versus

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