Soil is one of the most diverse habitats on Earth and it contains one of the most diverse arrays of living organisms, but soil is still one of the most poorly researched habitats of our planet. Invertebrates are the majority of the living organisms found in the soil habitat and even make up 95-97% of all animal species. These animals are characterized and known for lacking a backbone. There are many living organisms in the soil. This is called biodiversity. Without biodiversity, life on Earth would be impossible or will be significantly impaired. “Biodiversity encompasses all of the species, food chains, and biological patterns in the environmental system as small as a microcosm or large landscape or a geographic region” (Paoletti). The diversity of soil organisms is largely determined by a number of abiotic and biotic factors. Invertebrates play significant roles. Animals, plants, microorganisms and their complex interactions respond to human landscape management, which help protect biodiversity and for ecosystem health. Invertebrates’ highly complex and intimate interactions also help give the soil high resistance and resilience. Studies with bioindicators, “a species or ecological community that is so closely associated with particular environmental conditions that its presence is indicative of these conditions in a particular environment” (Bioindicator), apply biodiversity as a principal tool to evaluate the landscape and the quality and function and to assess different
Mangroves are woody trees and shrubs with a thick, exposed network of roots that grow down from the branches and into the water and sediment. All mangroves are found on the intertidal zones between ocean and the land. When the sediment accumulate little wave occurs, the saline depend on the frequency. Some of the indirect impacts are the sediment runoff and also including chemical runoff, global warming is one of main effects of the mangrove ecosystem. In Tannum there are various types of mangroves. Such as the river and grey mangroves located at south tree and wild cattle in both Tannum sands and Boyne Island along the Boyne River. Leaves are around 7cm long gland that secret salt, the
Zonation is the distribution of animals and plants into specific zones according to abiotic factors and characterised by its dominant species . Mangrove zonation is the distinguishable categorisation of a mangrove ecosystem that extends from shore to inland regions. Definitive spatial variation of mangrove species has been recognised amongst different ecosystems worldwide and is accredited as being influenced by abiotic and environmental factors . In Eastern Australia, the majority of mangrove forests may be divided into landward, middle and seaward zones, based off of their placement in relation to tidal position. The following points represent the typical physiognomies characterised by mangroves in their corresponding zones:
Mangrove Forest is another type of ecosystem in South Texas. Mangrove Forests are found along the coast in salty waters and the general abiotic conditions are high salinity flooded soils, low wave energy, high temperatures, and muddy soils. Black Mangrove and Buttonwood are the dominant plant species in South Texas Mangrove Forest ecosystem. Buttonwood is adapted to this ecosystem because it resides inland where there is less salty conditions. Black Mangrove is adapted to sandy salty clay soil and requires protection from wave action and they are sensitive to cold weather. Some common animal species that live in Mangrove Forests are many species of fish, crabs, mollusks, and birds. Mangrove forests provide a habitat, shelter, and nursery to these species that reside in this ecosystem. Mangrove forest serve as a coastal protection from severe storms and hurricanes also help remove pollutants and erosion. The economic importance of Mangrove forest is that they support fisheries, water purification, tourism, and coastal protection. Human activities pose a threat to Mangrove Forests because of the removal of some mangroves, boat waves, oil spills, dredging, draining, and diking.
Mangroves are trees and shrubs forming forests on the coastal wetlands, typically growing between saltmarsh and seagrass beds. Sydney Olympic park is the main habitat for the grey Mangrove and the planted river
Biodiversity is life, it heals us as more than 70,000 plant and trees species on earth are used in medicine. It gives us shelter, without wood we couldn't build houses, furniture or tools. Biodiversity provides us with food and clothes.
The roots help to create land by holding the soil that runs into the ponds when it rains. Red mangroves also helps to protect the coral reefs. Fish sometimes use the mangrove roots as shelter and protection as it provides a barrier from the ponds to the reefs. The mangroves roots harbor many marine wildlife and the animals have formed a small ecosystem from it. In volatile ocean movement, waves and hurricanes, the red mangrove as well as other mangrove trees become a protection shield and barrier for the land. The southeast is where you would find most mangrove forests to be vital, as it is an integral part of that region's ecosystem with the red mangrove being most important. Red mangroves are found at the water’s edge, and their roots provide barrier and safe habitat for fish and other marine life.
Coral reefs are the most diverse and biologically richest of all marine ecosystems. As with almost every ecosystem and its members, coral reefs provide several ecosystem services. For instance, coral reefs serve as natural barriers against hurricanes and
Fish farming is a great solution in regard of Overfishing, but there are also Benefits and Limitations of this solution regarding different factors. Economically this solution has great benefits. Domestic seafood demand is predicted to be 2.2 million metric tons more than today by 2025. That is a potential of $1 billion per year if the supply of fish kept up by fish farming and breeding. The current US production from aquacultures like fish farming is near to $900 million annually. The US department of commerce hopes that will be increased by $5 billion by 2025. That is a HUGE economic benefit if fish farming is not broken down. Now of course if the farmers hear those facts, they
Great Barrier Reef. Australia has adopted EBM to protect its coral reefs. As well it uses EBM to regulate the fish populations. It has gone further than any other country in enshrining EBM principles into law (McShane, Broadhurst, and Williams, 2007). The Great Barrier Reef in Australia is one of the great natural heritage sights not just in Australia but in the world. It is taking the right approach in protecting this great natural wonder. Olsson, Folke, and Hughes, (2008) reported, “The transformation process was induced by increased pressure on the Great Barrier Reef from terrestrial runoff, over-harvesting, and global warming that triggered a new sense of urgency to address these challenges”. It is unfortunate that change did not occur until the danger to the reef reached a critical status, but the Australian government moved fast and the reef is in much better shape now.
The economy is the system by which societies work together and trade goods and services with each other. Economies decide how resources are distributed among members of a society; they determine the value of goods or services; and they even determine what kinds of things can be traded or bartered for those services and goods. The economy of early societies was grounded on barter. In a barter system, an individual would trade an item for another. Currently, our economy uses money to make trade easier but still use bartering when it is convenient. The way a society structures its economic system is fundamentally a political and social matter. The political and legal structure of a society will govern how wealth can be collected, how resources and wealth are given out, and the method of competition allowed between different participants in the economy. This paper explores the sectors of the economy as well as the economic systems or models while incorporating the Belizean economy and work.
An ecosystem is a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. An ecosystem consists of biotic factors and abiotic factors. The biotic factors of an ecosystem are the living organisms, while the abiotic factors of an ecosystem are the temperature, climate, sun, and the weather. The ecosystem being researched is the Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef is located right off of Australia. The Great Barrier Reef has around 400 types of coral and 1,500 species of fish. It has more than 3000 different reef systems. The Great Barrier Reef is one of the natural wonders of the world, and for good reason.
Biodiversity is vital to the survival of an ecosystem. However, the increase of extinct and endangered animal and plant species has weakened the diversity and sustainability of the ecosystem. Human activity is the leading cause of the high extinction rate of species; about ninety-nine percent of endangered species are at risk due to human activities (biological diversity). However, humans do not think what we are doing to the environment is immoral. Why do humans act like everything we do is morally correct and acceptable? This is because humans believe every action we carry out would benefit our societies and encourage us to advance further. When we advance further, we will improve the living conditions of all creatures with advanced medicine and optimal habitat. However, we did not realize that we are paving the pathway toward destruction by driving species extinction at a rate of 100 to 1000 times faster than natural rate(ncbi).
Off the Caribbean coast of Belize, between Mexico and Guatemala, lies the Belize Barrier Reef, the largest reef in the northern and western hemispheres. The reef is home to many species of coral reefs, coastal lagoons, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests. It provides a habitat for a large number of fish species and many endangered animals. With global warming issues, local activities, and mass tourism threatening the very existence of the reef, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO ) has made the Belize Barrier Reef part of the World Heritage list, which preserves and protects the cultural and natural heritage around the world.
Certain species of mangrove are sources of fibers, chemicals and medicine. Palawan mangroves, for example, are raw materials for Japan’s chemical industries.