With the start of globalization and international expansion cities became a more significant part for various industry sectors. By 2000, more than 500 cities had more than one million inhabitants. According to the United Nations, 54% of the world’s population currently live in urban areas. Urbanization combined with the overall growth of the world’s population could add another 2.5 billion people to urban populations by 2050, with close to 90 percent of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa. This significant change of urbanization will lead to challenges in satisfying the needs for housing, infrastructure, transportation, energy supply and employment, as well as for basic services such as education and health care .
This report will critically discuss three key elements in relation to urbanisation: political economy, economic growth in urban areas and urban sociology. With this discussion, I will argue that the shift in urban areas from centralization and neoliberal globalisation had effected society in different parts of the world differently. Since this essay is only looking at three main aspects, this is not a complete discussion of the matter, but it is intended to provide an insight in the main aspects of economic development in urban areas.
POLITICAL URBAN DEVELOPMENT
The study of urban politics is the study what occurs on the ground, among people who share the same space for day-to-day living. This makes the study of urban politics particularly challenging