Isomerization: A Chemical Composition

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Isomerization is the chemical process by which a compound is transferred into any of its isomeric forms. i.e., forms with the same chemical composition but with different structure or configuration and, hence, generally with different physical and chemical properties. An example is the conversion of butane, a hydrocarbon with four carbon atoms joined in a straight chain and is a branched-chain isomer, isobutane, by heating the butane to 100° C or higher in the presence of a catalyst. Butane and isobutane have widely different properties. Butane boils at -0.5° C and freezes at -138.3° C, whereas isobutane boils at -11.7° C and freezes at -159.6° C. The isomerization of straight-chain hydrocarbons to their corresponding branched-chain isomers is an important step (called reforming) in gasoline manufacture.
There are two general types of isomers. Constitutional isomers or structural isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula, same number of atoms but do not have the same connectivity between them. For example the following molecules have the same molecular formula but different connectivity. Image
There are four main types of structural isomers. They are known as position isomer, chain isomer, functional group isomers and tautomers. Chain isomers is a type of molecular isomerism seen in carbon compounds; as the number of carbon atoms in the molecule increases, the linkage between the atoms may be a straight
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