Isomerization is the chemical process by which a compound is transferred into any of its isomeric forms. i.e., forms with the same chemical composition but with different structure or configuration and, hence, generally with different physical and chemical properties. An example is the conversion of butane, a hydrocarbon with four carbon atoms joined in a straight chain and is a branched-chain isomer, isobutane, by heating the butane to 100° C or higher in the presence of a catalyst. Butane and isobutane have widely different properties. Butane boils at -0.5° C and freezes at -138.3° C, whereas isobutane boils at -11.7° C and freezes at -159.6° C. The isomerization of straight-chain hydrocarbons to their corresponding branched-chain isomers is an important step (called reforming) in gasoline manufacture.
There are two general types of isomers. Constitutional isomers or structural isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula, same number of atoms but do not have the same connectivity between them. For example the following molecules have the same molecular formula but different connectivity. Image
There are four main types of structural isomers. They are known as position isomer, chain isomer, functional group isomers and tautomers. Chain isomers is a type of molecular isomerism seen in carbon compounds; as the number of carbon atoms in the molecule increases, the linkage between the atoms may be a straight
During the halogenation reactions of 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol, there is a formation of water from the OH atom of the alcohol, and the H atom from the HCl solution. The OH bond of the alcohol is then substituted with the Cl atom. Therefore all of the degrees of alcohol undergo halogenation reactions, and form alkyl halides as products. This is because the functional group of alkyl halides is a carbon-halogen bond. A common halogen is chlorine, as used in this experiment.
Condensation- Condensation is when two molecules combine and form one bigger molecule. It is exact opposite process of hydrolysis. It is also
The study guide requires the student to have the ability to determine if a molecule is organic or inorganic. Moreover, in the reading for this unit, I learned about the four characteristics that all molecules defined as organic share:
In Part A of the experiment, isoborneol was oxidized. First, 0.5 grams of isoborneol was dissolved in 1.5 mL of glacial acetic acid inside a 25 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Next, 4.0 mL of household bleach was added to the solution with swirling. The solution was swirled for the next 15 minutes and then was tested against starch-iodine paper. If there was a blue color, then that indicated there was an excess of NaOCl. If the test was negative, a small amount of bleach (~0.5 mL) was added and tested again. The mixture was then diluted with 15 mL of water and transferred to a separatory funnel. 15 mL of diethyl ether and 0.5-1.0 mL NaHSO3 was added. The funnel was shaken and the layers were allowed to separate. The aqueous layer was removed. The ether layer was washed (separated) with 10 mL NaHCO3 solution. The aqueous layer was then tested against litmus paper to confirm that it was basic. The ether layer was dried by anhydrous Na2SO4.
Another type of refining is called polymerization, which is the opposite of cracking in that it combines the smaller molecules into bigger ones that then could be used as liquid fuels.
Isopentyl acetate, banana oil, is a naturally occurring compound that has a very distinct and recognizable odor. It is most commonly found in bananas but also can be found in other organisms.
At almost the same point in time, Kekule in Germany, and Couper of Scotland suggested that atoms in molecules are fused together by bonds. Their theory was that every atom is distinguished by having the same number of bond availability or valence number, where ever that particular atom appears in any compound. The main notability of organic compounds is having strong carbon to carbon bonds. This was recognized in the theory, and was used to help understand large molecules, possessing many bonded carbon atoms. Carbon is the cement that holds their molecules together. So far, this theory has gone through rigorous testing, and has not been proven inadequate to this day, as of now it is a law.
These new formations are held together by hydrogen bonds. The third level is the tertiary structure. The tertiary structure of a protein is a contorted secondary structure being twisted and folded all out of shape to form a 3-d complex. The type of bonding that holds these formations together are weak interactions such as hydrophilic, hydrophobic, ionic, and hydrogen bonds. These bonds are individually weak, but collectively strong. The forth level, which completes a protein, is quaternary structure, which occurs when two or more tertiary structures are joined together by polypeptide bonds.
structures. The structural variety is quite wide and the complex set of specific cases eludes the