Kaufman, Sternberg, And Sternberg's Theory Of Successful Intelligence
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Intelligence is a widely studied variable by psychologists. It is one of the key elements considered by educators in curricula development, course structures and education policies and systems. Intelligence is believed to evolve in humans. Many people assign to the ideology that intelligence is a factor that has caused human beings to survive and develop from one generation to another, it has also defined human differences and capacities. Intelligence Quotient is measure by Mental Age/Chronological Age.
According to Kaufman, Kaufman and Plucker, (2012) the intelligence is an “inherently interesting topic to most people. An understanding of intelligence often provides insight into people’s capabilities, provides insight into why various psychological…show more content… Sternberg, (1999) theory of successful intelligence. He defines Successful intelligence as: 1) the ability to achieve one’s goals in life, given one’s sociocultural context; 2) by capitalizing on strengths and correcting or compensating for weaknesses; 3) in order to adapt to, shape, and select environments; and, 4) through a combination of analytical, creative, and practical abilities. Sternberg (2007) suggests, the key element “success is attained through a balance of analytical, creative, and practical abilities” (pp. 297–298). According to Sternberg, these three abilities, in combination, are important for success in life. Analytical intelligence is required to solve problems and to judge the quality of ideas. Creative intelligence is required to formulate good problems and solutions, and practical intelligence is needed to use the ideas and analysis in an effective way in one’s everyday life (Sternburg, 2005). A second key element is that “intelligence is defined in terms of the ability to achieve success in life in terms of one’s personal standards, within one’s sociocultural context” (pp. 296–297). Sternberg in 1997 argues that “intelligence testing has primarily focused on the prediction of success in an academic setting. The theory of successful intelligence emphasizes the importance of going beyond just the academic sphere to account for success in whatever goals individuals (or…show more content… The noeuroimages have provided motivation for the use of neuroimaging technology in studies and measurement of intelligence and a useful model (P-FIT) for further investigation. With current advances in the field of neuroimaging technology and analyses, researchers should now be poised to make substantial advances in our understanding of the biological bases of intelligence. Despite the millstone achieve by these two researchers, Sternberg (2007) criticises their research as not correctly answering the question, Where is intelligence in the brain?
Roring, Nandagopal, and Anders (2007) state, although Jung and Haier document reveals important similarities in the location of relevant brain areas during the performance of many of specific tasks, all the studies they reviewed are based on samples of untrained participants. This type of research cannot address the critical question of whether the same structures of Parietofrontal integration theory (P-FIT) would be activated, and thus mediate individual differences, in the execution of high levels of skilled