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CEOs tell us that their most pressing need is for more leaders in their organizations—not the consummate role-players who seem to surround them.
—Rob Goffee and Gareth Jones


ary Yukl (2006) defines leadership as “the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives” (p. 8). Peter Northouse (2007) defines leadership as “a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.” These definitions suggest several components central to the phenomenon of leadership.
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Both are required for there to be a leadership process. Within this process, both leaders and followers have an ethical responsibility to attend to the needs and concerns of each other; however, because this casebook is about leadership, we will focus more on the ethical responsibility of leaders toward their followers. Finally, it needs to be said that leaders are not better than followers, nor are they above followers. On the contrary, leaders and followers are intertwined in a way that requires them to be understood in their relationship with each other and as a collective body of two or more people (Burns, 1978; Dubrin, 2007; Hollander, 1992).
In the previous paragraphs, leadership has been defined, and the definitional aspects of leadership have been discussed. In the next few paragraphs, several other issues related to the nature of leadership will be discussed: how trait leadership is different from leadership as a process, how emergent and appointed leadership are different, and how coercion, power, and management are different from leadership.

Trait Versus Process
Statements such as “She is a born leader” and “He was born to lead” imply a perspective toward leadership that is trait based. Yukl (2006) states that the trait approach “emphasizes leaders’ attributes such as personality, motives, values, and skills.


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