Lithium ion batteries were introduced commercially during the early 1990’s as the desire for smaller and more lightweight rechargeable batteries grew with the increased demand for the improvement of portable electronic devices (Yoshino, 2012). Prior to this there were commercially available rechargeable batteries already on the market, predominately in the form of lead-acid (PbA), Nickel-Cadmium (NiC) and Nickel Metal-hydride (NiMH) batteries. The development of the Lithium ion (Li-ion) battery began due to the knowledge of lithium’s low redox reaction rate and high energy to weight ratio (Wu, 2015), which, it was believed would make Li-ion batteries a good option for introducing smaller, more energy rich batteries to the growing market.…show more content… Through the continuous research and development in the chemistry of Li-ion batteries the components have been extensively studied in an attempt to find the best materials to ensure a battery with a high energy capacity and safety features. There are a wide range of cathode materials available for use in a Li-ion battery. Those with a good level of stability at high temperatures, insolubility in the electrolyte and good electrical conductivity (Chakrabarti, 2008) being the ideal choice for the cathode. In general cathodes consist of lithium-metal oxides and these layered or intercalated oxides containing nickel, cobalt and manganese are those which have been studied most extensively. Both cobalt and nickel have a high voltage, making these metals excellent options for the cathode, however, the availability of cobalt is quite limited. Manganese is a low cost substitution but it has limited cycling behaviour, hence mixtures of these metals are combined to provide a cathode with a high thermal threshold, good rate capabilities and availability with low toxicity and low cost (Claus, 2008). Recent studies have highlighted polyoxyanion structures, such as Lithium Iron Phosphate, as options for the cathode material, providing high electrochemical performances as well as nontoxicity (Chakrabarti, 2008).
As with cathode materials, there are many options for the material of the anode, with each providing different advantages. The Anode requires a high and reversible