Localised Scleroderma Case Study

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Scleroderma is a broad term used to describe a spectrum of disorders identified by skin fibrosis (Succaria, Kurban, Kibbi & Abbas, 2013). It is a serious condition that is classified as either being a systemic or localised autoimmune disease of collagen tissue impacting both internal and external organs (Oksel & Gündüzoğlu, 2014). Due to the vast divergency of this disease there will be brief discussion on the various forms of both systemic and localised scleroderma however, the main focus is to investigate findings based on localised scleroderma, delving into the knowledge of the conditions with particular focus on the aetiology of the disease and its clinical features, followed by differential diagnosis of how this condition can be misdiagnosed …show more content…

Abnormal immune function in both forms of scleroderma is defined as an alteration in cytokine function and the activation of T-cells with the presence of auto-antibodies (Woo, Laxer & Sherry, 2007). IL-4 and IL-6 stimulate collagen synthesis by the activation of fibroblasts, increasing production of collagen type I and III. Other factors that are thought to mediate fibroblast activation include growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor and connective tissue growth factors. Additionally, the production of tissue inhibitors such as matrix metalloproteases has been noticeably upregulated therefore, fibrosis is thought to be a result of not only the increased levels of collagen production but also the decreased levels of cellular matrix turnover (Mayes, 2014). Localised scleroderma will appear with dyspigmented, atrophic sclerotic lesions generally present on the extremities, back, trunk, neck, head and scalp, where as the first manifestation present in systemic scleroderma is oedema of the hands, causing restricted movement followed by skin

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