Introduction To explain nanocrystalline materials, it should have been explained that “nano” concept at first. Nanostructures are relatively new and interesting subject to investigate, they are in a scale which is between 0-100 nanometers (1 nanometer, nm is equal to 10-9 meter). There are some types of nanostructured materials such as lamellar (1-dimensional), filamentary (2-dimensional) and crystallites (3-dimensional). If grains of the material are made up of crystals, then “nanocrystalline materials” term is what they are called. In this case, nanocrystalline materials have grains which are the size of < 100 nm typically. An example of nanocrystalline material of SnO2 is imaged with STM as seen in Fig. 1  and SEM image of nanocrystalline diamond thin films as seen in Fig. 2.  Fig. 1. STM image of nanocrystalline SnO2  Fig. 2. SEM image of nanocrystalline diamond thin films.  In nanocrystalline materials there are numerous superior properties which actually are very useful and promising about future works and applications. The reason for the superior properties is that nanocrystalline materials have very high number of atoms at their grain boundaries which are in nanometer scale. Some of the properties that can be enhanced and increased by making nanocrystalline materials rather than the coarse-grained materials are higher strength, higher hardness, increased diffusivity, increased mechanical properties and so on . This is why people have studied in
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Semiconductor Nano crystals or quantum dots are materials that are typically 2-20 nm in diameter, consisting of approximately twelve to fourteen thousand atoms. The effect of quantum confinement results, in the electrons and holes in the Nano crystal to exhibit quantized energy states; thus enabling them to exhibit novel physical properties that are not found in their bulk counterparts. Research in semiconductor quantum dots started with the realization that the optical and electronic properties of these particles were strongly dependent on particle size, due to quantum confinement of the charge carriers in small spaces.
The use of nano-materials and extreme precision micro-engineering has the potential for great improvement in the world of electronics and information technology by providing smaller, faster, and more powerful computers and this has been at the forefront of the nanotechnology commercialization . Great examples of how nanotechnology is currently being used in these fields are products such as processors, data storage, and memory components made with nano-materials, TVs, monitors and even smartphone screens that use organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), and waterproof electronics such as smartphones due to the application of nano-coatings
Nanotechnology is a term of two words: the first word is “Nano” and derives from the Greek word “Nanos” and it means “Dwarf” or something very small. The second word is “Technology” and it means applied application of knowledge in a certain field. So nanotechnology is the technology of very small substances, and it specializes in treating the substance on the Nano measure to produce new, useful, and unique resultants in its properties [22-23].The Nano is a unique measuring unit and from the physical and mathematical point of view, the Nano equals one part of a billion of the measured unit. The nanometer (nm) equals a part of a billion part of a meter. Thus, it is 10-9 of a meter. The Nano is used as a measuring unit for very minute particles [24-26].
Compared to TiO2, Figure 26a and 26b, which represent the XRD for titania film, it is observed that the crystallinity increases with temperature, which is the same behavior as with zinc oxide films. Furthermore, there is great difference between the samples with SiO2 layer and those without barrier layer. In the samples without barrier layer, sodium diffusion inhibit crystals growing in the film .
Nanotechnology is a novel technology what generally deals with structures and systems with a size less than 100nm.  Due to its unique tiny size, the properties are quite different from bulk properties include physical properties, chemistry properties, biological properties. For example, gold in bulk form is inert, but in nano scale, it tends to be very active. Moreover, different sizes, structures, and surface areas of gold nanoparticles make it exhibit different colors.
The effects of balanced crystalloids (LR) vs saline in non-critically ill patients outside of the intensive care unit is uncertain. This paper investigates the differences between the use of these two fluids through a single center, pragmatic, multiple crossover trial. Using lactated ringer’s solution/ Plasma-Lyte A vs Saline in adults initially treated in the Emergency Department and subsequently hospitalized elsewhere from the ICU. Patients were assigned balanced crystalloids or saline monthly during the 16 month trial. The outcome monitored in these patients was hospital free days with a secondary outcomes including adverse kidney events within 30 days, new renal replacement therapy , or persistent renal dysfunction (defined as a greater than 200% elevation of creatinine.
This book by Hornyak and partners brings into perspective an integrated introduction to the nanoscience and its applications. The book further presents illustrations in full color regarding nanotechnology. From these illustrations, I will be developing a detailed understanding of the fundamentals of nanotechnology. I will also be acquiring knowledge on the different aspects of nanotechnology including chemistry, physics, and biology. The authors also discuss the impacts of nanotechnology on the society, which is also an important part of my paper. I will be gathering information on industrial concerns associated with nanotechnology in manufacturing and safety. This will broaden my discussion to a better-informed approach in explaining implications of nanotechnology in the modern
Many miniaturized electronics use thin films. Thin films are metals where the width is larger than the thickness. It is extremely important to understand the properties of thin films in order to use them effectively in electronics. One of the important properties is texture of the film because it determines the reliability of the metal. The texture of a film is determined by the orientation of the cubes. Metals such as silver, copper and nickel are all face-centered cubic. What that means is that the atoms are arranged in a way that it form a cube with an atom in the center of each side (as shown in figure 1). Multiples cubes bonds together which
Pure aluminum nanocomposite reinforced with silicon carbide was produced by powder metallurgy route. Modeling investigations and mechanical experiments were carried out on the mechanical Behviour. of this nanocomposites .Measurements of density, tensile properties and hardness showed that the tensile strength and the porosity of composites increased with the increasing in the amount of the nanoparticles; however, aluminum ductility was decreased. On the other hand, the elongation percentage keeps constant with the increasing in the percentage of the nanoparticles. Wear resistance increased in the composite samples comparing to alloy. In the current research, a technique based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Finite Element Method (FEM) was implemented to predict mechanical properties. It was observed that prediction results in this study are consistent with the real measurements for composites.
Diamond has a Face centered cubic structure. This arrangement makes the diamond toughest, high thermal conductor & gives optical diversion properties. The substitution of carbon with boron in diamond lattice improves the electron m0obility in the structure. Nanodiamonds are smoother than microcrystalline diamond which ranges between 10-100nm. Nanodiamonds are often termed as ‘cauliflower’ or ‘ballas’ diamond. They contain large number of grain boundaries with impurities of graphite. Even ultra naocrystalline diamonds have a grain size of 2-1nm .
This can be attributed to the fact that as the current is directly proportional to the flux, the magnitude of the current should be fast at faster scan rate and slow at slower scan rates.40 The CV curves reveal that the maximum current density and an enhanced capacitive area were observed for the nanocomposites ZnSnO2@G. This observation can be explained based on the fact that graphene with its 2D structures exhibits enhanced conductivity, higher surface area, and better capacitive behavior as compared to CNT. However, the Zn-doped nanocomposites have enhanced current densities as compared to SnO2-based nanocomposites, probably because of two reasons viz. First, the incorporation of Zn2+ ions as dopants decreases the size, and second, the substitution of the Zn2+ ions for the Sn4+ ions modifies the surface and forms more oxygen vacancies for charging compensation. Thus, the CV curve confirms the successful interaction between the metal oxides and graphitic forms, as also expected from the surface area and FESEM morphologies.
Thin films have gained lot of research attention in the last few decade and are expected to play a very important role in the development of