Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting the body’s ability to take up glucose into the tissues. There are two main classifications; Type 1 is known as insulin dependent, meaning that the patient’s body no longer produces insulin to help in the uptake of glucose. Type 2 is known as non-insulin dependent, these patients usually have two problems; insulin resistance, the insulin they produce does not work properly and β-cell impairment, their body does not produce enough insulin.2 In 2008 a study showed that of 24 million patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes in the United States, 40% of them were 65 years of age or older.1 Patients diagnosed with diabetes have elevated HbA1C levels of 6.5% or higher. The American Diabetes Association recommends a target of < 7% for most patients3 with diabetes to be considered controlled. Type 2 Diabetes patients usually begin with monotherapy oral medication, such as Metformin along with diet and exercise to decrease blood glucose levels and HbA1C levels. Unfortunately, monotherapy is not effective in many patients and they soon add a second therapy. A sulfonylurea, such as Glyburide, is a second-line drug in the treatment of diabetes because it “enhances insulin secretion”3 unlike metformin which “increases insulin sensitivity.”3 A study published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism compared the effects of metformin monotherapy, glyburide monotherapy and glyburide-metformin therapy in 486 patients whose
Type II Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes or aadult onset diabetes. It is a medical disorder that, due to a number of factors codependent with the modern world, is characterized by higher than normal blood glucose levels that play havoc with insulin deficiency and resistance. Insulin resistance means that cells do not respond appropriately when there is free insulin in the blood system. Essentially, they body is reacting to an improper balance of sugars and insulin. Because obesity is often present, research suggests that even thought the mechanisms controling glucose and insulin are unclear, the adopose tissue likely
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic dysfunctional metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose levels (Hyperglycemia). Currently, the causes of this disease may be an inadequate amount of insulin produced by the pancreas, cells in the body are resistant to insulin, and the pancreas producing less insulin than average. There are two main types of diabetes: Type I and Type II. Primary care physicians and endocrinologistendocrinologists can provide guidelines on diseases and treatment for each type of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Mellitus, secondary to pancreatic disease (type 3C), is a condition rarely considered in everyday practice.
Answer: The combination of Insulin as well as oral hyperglycaemic drugs may be prescribed for Diabetes because they help in lowering the blood glucose levels. However the primary treatment doesn’t consist of these drugs. The primary treatment comprises of Diet control, Physical activity and Weight control. If after following the primary treatment strictly, no improvement in the blood glucose level is achieved then medication is suggested for the same. Insulin helps in maintaining the blood sugar levels. Note that insulin is not to be taken orally because the acids and digestive juices in the stomach destroy it. It has to be injected under the skin only. Taking insulin leads patient to experience Hyperglycaemic condition. The Hyperglycaemic drugs helps our body to react appropriately with the insulin so that the insulin hormone is able to help transfer glucose from blood to the cells successfully.
Type II diabetes is a chronic medical condition that affects the way the body uses glucose. With diabetes, the body can resist the effect of insulin or fails to produce enough insulin to preserve a glucose level within normal limits. Type II diabetes is becoming much more common than before and the occurrence is growing. Approximately 23.5 million people in the United States are living with type II diabetes (Fesselle, 2010).
"Diabetes mellitus," notes a 2010 San Diego health assessment posting, "is a disease of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism, in which the level of blood glucose, or blood sugar, is above normal. The disease occurs when the body is unable to produce or use insulin, a hormone that helps move glucose from the blood into other cells throughout the body" (San Diego County, n.d.). Type 1 generally reflects a naturally occurring demonstration of this; Type 2 is associated with adjustments that the body makes as a result of sugar and fat intake, and thus aligned very directly with obesity and poor health and dietary concerns. An estimated 90% to 95% of the conditions are now Type 2, contributing
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) or Type 2 Diabetes is seen as a metabolic disease that is categorized by abnormally high blood glucose or hyperglycemia. Diabetes Mellitus is also formerly known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and is the most common form of diabetes that is seen. Insulin is a hormone that is supplied to the body that allows us to efficiently use glucose as fuel. When carbohydrates are broken down into sugars in the stomach glucose enters the blood circulation simulating the pancreas to release insulin in an appropriate amount to become used for energy. With diabetes mellitus the body does not properly make use of the insulin supplied for the body. This causes the pancreas to produced an extra amount if insulin which the body cannot keep up with, causing an imbalance to the blood glucose levels (American Diabetes Association, 2015). In the united states diabetes affects almost 29.1 million people, while the another 86 million people have pre-diabetes but do not know. It is also known as the 7th leading cause of death in the country in the recent years (MedicineNet.com, 2016). For a patient suffering from a chronic form of diabetes mellitus understanding how these mechanisms lead to the condition can be used as preventative measures. Potential consequences as well as the causes and clinical manifestations will ensure a better knowledge on the issue to monitor the condition.
Considerable advances in the past treatment of type II diabetes include the application of lifestyle intervention and prevention efforts aimed at delaying development of glucose intolerance in order to evade diabetes and the progression of new curricula of glucose in the blood-lowering prescriptions to appendage current treatments (DeFronzo, 2010) (Mazzola, 2012). Presently, the control and maintenance of type II diabetes centres on control of glucose by the decrease of haemoglobin and glucose in the blood (DeFronzo, 2010). Current treatment strategies focus on the progression of therapeutic factors that affect the defects contributing to type II diabetes and thus, provide sustainable glucose control through a delaying of disease development
Rattue, P. (Feburary 2012). TAK-875 New Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes. The Lancet Via Medical News Today. Retrieved from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/ articles/242256.php
Type 2 diabetes, often referred to as noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that is often brought on by an individual’s lifestyle. Such as obesity, poor eating habits and not exercising. With this condition the body either resist insulin effect or doesn’t produce enough insulin (Buttaro, Trybulski, Bailey, & Sandberg-Cook, 2013).
A study conducted by Buse et al (2007) examined the metabolic effects of 2 years of exenatide treatment in patients with T2DM. The results of their study showed HbA(1c) levels were
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologist (AACE) treatment goals are individualized and aimed at lowering A1C and prevention of hypoglycemia along with decreased comorbidities associated with diabetes. Diabetics who are at an increased risk for hypoglycemia include: a diagnosis of greater than 15 years, advanced macrovascular disease, hypoglycemia unawareness, limited life expectancy and severe comorbidities (Garber, Blonde, Bush, Einhorn, & Garber,et al., 2017). In addition Fowler (2010) notes that those with renal or hepatic dysfunction are at an increased risk for hypoglycemia due to the combination of less endogenous glucose production and longer insulin half life. This combination can result in a rapid lowering of glucose.
Various organizations have defined prediabetes with criteria that are not uniform. According to World Health Organization (WHO), high risk of diabetes is related to two specifically defined states, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 6.1-6.9 mmol/L (110-125 mg/dL) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) defined as postload plasma glucose of 7.8-11.0 mmol/L (140-200 mg/dL) based on a 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or a combination of the two (1). The American Diabetes Association (ADA), on the other hand has the same cut-off value for IGT (140-200 mg/dL) but has a lower cut-off value for IFG (100-125 mg/dL) and has additional hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) based criteria of a level of 5.7-6.4% (2). Several studies have shown poor correlation between HbA1c and IFG and IGT (3-5). The usefulness of diagnosis diabetes or pre-diabetes on basis of IFG and IGT have been challenged due to inability of these blood glucose cut points to capture pathology related to diabetes and probability of developing diabetes in future (6). These cut-offs further loose their credibility due to poor reproducibility of these tests in
One of the most common illnesses in the world, diabetes is characterized as hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance or lack of insulin production (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Normally, insulin produced by the pancreas is transported from bloodstream to the body cells or stored by the liver in the form of glycogen in order to balance blood glucose level. In people with type II diabetes, blood glucose remains in the blood due to insulin resistance, thereby resulting in hyperglycemia. Type II diabetes consists of about 90-95% of all the diabetic population in the US (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). High cases of type II diabetes are common in people over the age of 45 ("Diagnoses of diabetes," 2012).
It directly targets the kidneys by lowering the renal threshold for glucose and increases urinary glucose excretion (UGE).3 In this project, the safety and efficacy of canagliflozin and glimepiride are compared. Canagliflozin and glimepiride have distinct glucose-lowering mechanisms of action and can be used as alternative therapies for T2DM patients with different medical conditions.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar levels over an extended period of time. With symptoms including increased urination, thirst, and hunger, diabetes is mainly due to loss of insulin production in the pancreas or lack of response to insulin produced. As of 2015, nearly 415 million people worldwide have diabetes with the three main types being Type 1, Type 2, and gestational. 90% of all diabetes cases are Type 2 (T2D) which is characterized by insulin resistance, high blood sugar, and lack of insulin. Also known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), this disease is primary caused by obesity and lack of exercise in genetically predisposed people and affects in nearly 29 million people in the US alone, making it the 7th leading cause of death in the country (American Diabetes Association 2016).