The purpose of the report is to outline the concept of genetic manipulation, which is an all-inclusive term that describes the deliberate manipulation of the genetic material by biochemical techniques. It is also referred to as genetic modification or genetic engineering. These are the terms for the process of manipulating the genes, usually outside organisms natural reproductive process. It involves, isolation, manipulation and reintroduction. In this report the type of genetic manipulations that will be discussed are selective breeding in the plants in order to produce desired characteristics. The case study that covers selective breeding in the report is on Red Fleshed Apple. On the other hand, transgenesis in animals is the other type of genetic manipulation being covered which means taking a gene from one species and inserting it into another. The case study organism explaining transgenesis in animals will be transgenic cow.
Case study done on Red-Fleshed Apples
Selective breeding also called artificial selection is the process by which according to human need, animals and plants are bred for particular traits. The main aim for doing selective breeding is to pass the desired traits on to the future generations and in an attempt to produce offspring with improved traits. The techniques involved in selective breeding include In breeding, line breeding and outcrossing. Few steps involved in selective breeding are:
- Decided which characteristics are
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Genetic manipulation is a powerful tool that allows humans to selectively modify organisms. It provides the ability for humans to deliberately manipulate an organism 's’ genes in order to produce desirable traits. Genetic manipulation provides the ability for humans to decide which phenotypes to express, and which to eliminate. This typically starts with an individual organism, then goes onto eventually effect and entire species or breed.
Selective Breeding is the process through which plants and animals with certain traits are bred together to produce an offspring with desired traits. In other words, the process in which humans choose the traits which they want in a plant or animal, and they breed them hoping for a plant which can grow bigger, or maybe an animal which can be stronger. Selective Breeding is all about the inheritance of genes and alleles. Scientists may breed individuals to their desired traits, whilst also being aware of possible recessive genes. Chromosomes which carry genetic codes for an organism, determine the features and characteristics of that organism. Each organism has different features and characteristics, this is when selective breeding takes place,
Humans have been manipulating genetic transfer for over 10,000 years since our hunter- gatherer ancestors began to settle in one place and started farming and planting crops. Those humans observed and chose organisms from natural selection to select and breed organisms that showed characteristics desired by them and this began the process of selective breeding. Selective breeding favours recessive alleles that do not persist in wild populations. Selective breeding is a process of increasing the frequency of rare and recessive alleles so that they appear in homozygous form. This has the effect of eliminating the alleles for wild type from the population and the process of domestication has become irreversible. The domestic species has become dependent on humans for their survival. It is from these domestic species that humans have selected and breed favourable genetic traits for their benefit, be it higher yield in plant crops, sweeter tasting fruit, and more milk from dairy cows or ease of handling stock, selective breeding continues to be used today.
Selective breeding in animals and plants is still carried out by both commercial and hobby breeders/growers. Selective breeding allows you to be able to breed/grow the exact animal/plant you want, so they can serve the purpose you want them to. Selective breeding can be used to minimise the impacts and/or treat genetic disease.
Genetically altering genes has been around for ages by cross breeding plants. Genetic alteration has been practice to help plants grow healthier and stronger helping Indians to become nomadic. “Gatherers
Artificial selection is a technique of reproductive control by which man alters the genes of domestic or cultivated organisms. This technique is based on the inheritable characteristics of the species, increasing the frequency with which certain variations appear in the following generations; there is a directed evolution, in which human preferences determine the
Selective breeding involves breeding organisms based on their phenotypes so that the desired traits are passed onto successive generations, these desired alleles then increase (in frequency) in the gene pool. This has a large commercial benefit as animal and crop products now contain higher quality meat, quantity of milk, quality of wool, larger fruits etc.
Biotechnology is the application of scientific techniques and exploitation of biological processes used to improve and modify animals, plants and microorganisms to enhance their value through genetic manipulation. Over time, advances in the field of molecular biology has allowed scientists to take a particular gene from any organism, including, bacteria, viruses, plants or animals, and introduce those genes into another organism. An organism transformed using genetic engineering techniques is known as transgenic organism (Independent learning center, 2012). This paper discusses the positive and negative effects of genetically engineered organisms in agricultural applications and the Canadian regulation or legislation that relates to this issue.
‘Selective breeding is the process by which humans select organisms with desirable traits and breed them together so the trait appears in the next generation. The process is repeated over many generations until the characteristic becomes common. Selective breeding now often uses reproductive technologies, such as artificial insemination and marker assisted selection, so that the desirable characteristics of one male can be passed onto many offspring. This increases the rate at which the desirable trait is passed to progeny. Marker assisted selection is a molecular technique used to screen a genome for genetic markers that indicate desirable traits. (*1).
During the past years there has been a rise on the division between ethnical groups, religious groups, and social classes, all because they deem each other unfit for each other. This mere ideal has at times brought havoc to major cities and scared the lives of many, if genetic modification is allowed it will open a gateway that will allow the upper classes to actually make themselves physically superior to their
Selective breeding is the process by which humans reproduce other animals and plants of special features. Typically, strains that are selectively bred are domesticated, and livestock is normally done by a professional breeder, Livestock animals are known as races, while high plants are known as the varieties cultigens, or cultivars. The offspring of two purebred animals, but of different races is called a crossover, and hybrid plants are called hybrids.
Selective breeding also known as artificial selection is a process in which humans choose specific individuals (either plant or animal) with particular desirable traits to breed and produce offspring who will also have particularly useful or valuable features, hence overtime alleles or phenotypes that are beneficial to humans will increase in frequency overtime.
Genetic modification has been used in New Zealand since the 1970’s. Genetic modification, also known as Genetic Engineering is the act of directly manipulating the characteristics of an organism by modifying its genetic materials (Deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA) to produce new or improved organisms.