6 Megavoltage (MV) photons treat many superficial tumors. More importantly, they often require a bolus to bring the depth of maximum dose closer to the skin surface. Also, a bolus compensates for uneven skin surfaces or irregular contours on the patient’s surface. The depth of maximum equilibrium describes the depth in which the maximum dose of the formulated radiation deposited into the skin (Washington & Leaver, 2010). Bolus material should be flexible, pliable, and tissue-equivalent. There is no study that compares green Play-Doh, orange Play-Doh, water and uncooked rice to Superflab for providing maximum dose buildup, Dmax.
Nanocarriers (NCs) have emerged as a favored drug delivery approach towards improving the anticancer benefits of several bioactives for cancer therapy with recent reports showing the application of NC systems in clinical settings . The NCs with size < 100 nm have been associated with enhanced permeation and retention effect (EPR) due to the presence of leaky vasculature in the tumor tissues which contributes to its enhanced efficacy. Also recently, NCs have shown to be effective in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma . A recent study by Kanai et al. showed that the NC albumin-bound paclitaxel and carboplatin (nabPC) repetitively achieved tumor regression in malignant mesothelioma
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a form of phototherapy that consists of 3 main components; photosensitizers (light sensitive molecules), light and oxygen. Currently, PDT is being used as a treatment modality for a variety of specific tumours, skin diseases, and precancerous and non-cancerous diseases
Nanobots are invented to solve problems concerning cancer. Uncontrolled mitosis leads to cancer which have higher tendency to happen when mechanism that controls the cell is distrupted. In 2012, according to the World Health Organization, cancer is one of the leading cause of fatal. In Canada, approximately 30% of deaths are caused by cancer and abouy 191,300 new cases of cancer are expected in the year 2014. Annually, 14.1 milllon of new cases were reported while globally, there were 8.2 billion of deaths. Cancer cells need to compete with normal cells to obtain sufficient nutrient and energy for growth. Cancer cells divide out of control and are able to able to spread to other cell, tissue and organ which will result in malfunction and death.
Anthracyclines antitumour antibiotics are capable to inflict the action of topoisomerase involved in DNA replication which inhibits mitotic and disrupt cells proliferation. Doxorubicin (DOX, with the commercial name of Adriamycin) is one of anthracycline and is a potent FDA-approved chemotherapy drug with the great efficiency to combat cancerous cell dividing . Doxorubicin has been acknowledged to treat various types of cancers as well as breast cancer, bone marrow cancer, osteosarcoma and others for several decades that its ability limited by adverse side effect and unpredictable toxicity on normal cells leads to reduce immune cells and also extremely cardiotoxicity. Patients become more susceptible to infections . For this reason, nanoparticles
In conclusion, cancer fighting nanobots are leading into our future and leading into more new discoveries in the medical field. This new technology will not only help everyone's live but also will help the lives of cancer patients, in medical form. This invention may just be the solution to help save millions of lives in today's
Also, biotherapeutic therapy is similar to chemotherapy except that instead of delivering small molecular drugs (or metabolite ... etc.), biological agents such as DNA, small interfering RNA (siRNA), proteins, and peptides are delivered to tumor sites to induce apoptosis and cell death. In cancer, damaged DNA results in defect in protein expression causing deleterious effects. Cancer may be treated with DNA delivery by replacing the defective genes within cancer cells. Alternatively, cancer therapy via siRNA works by suppressing the protein expression of damaged genes. Protein and peptide therapy, on the other hand, operates by attacking speciﬁc cell mechanisms such as disrupting cell adhesion, interfering with angiogenesis, and/or blocking other
The ongoing nanoparticle systems have provided a semi-solid foundation in mitigating tumours but further arenas are being explored in cancer therapeutics so as to enhance the drug delivery process. The researchers have suggested and made use of nanoparticles in the size range of 1 -100 nm. Nanoparticles are known to elicit a
Inspired by the trans-endothelial migration of nanoparticle-loaded neutrophils to inflammatory sites, the application of this system in the treatment of cancer was reported 27. TA99, a monoclonal antibody, is specific for gp75 antigen on melanoma 61. When administrated, TA99 can activate and initiate neutrophil recruitment in tumor sites. In this study27, the authors addressed whether targeting of neutrophils in tumors using albumin NPs can enhance cancer immunotherapy. In a mouse model of melanoma, it was found that the internalization of albumin NPs in neutrophils and the accumulation of NPs in tumor dramatically increased after co-administration of TA99 and NPs than those with NPs alone. The further study found that the accumulation of BSA NPs in tumors was mediated by the recruitment of
Cancer is an important health problem that has strongly increased over the past couple of decades. According to the American Cancer Society, approximately 1,638,910 people in the United States are diagnosed with cancer each year; that is around 187 people per minute. This disease is ranked as the second most common cause of death in America. With cancer being so common today, there needs to be an effective and relatively fast treatment plan to cure the victims of cancer without causing more harm to them. Extensive research and analysis is critical to determine the best method of treatment. Cancer can be fatal but recent advancement and better understanding of the disease has produced major triumph in overcoming the ailment. Aside from
Did you know that about 1,688,780 new types of cancer have been found in the United States, killing more than 600,920 people? Cancer has been known as the second leading cause of death in the United States just after Chronic Heart Disease. Fortunately, researchers have found a way to prevent and cure cancer and that is by using Nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is a branch in the science field that deals with dimensions less than 100 nanometers, which is about a billionth of a meter. Furthermore, scientists predict that Nanotechnology can lead to a breakthrough in the medical field of Oncology. Not only that, but researchers have now found a way to “tune” the nanoparticles so that the
Many attempts were made to treat different kinds of cancer, the problem was the lack of specificity of anticancer drug towards cancer cells resulting in severe side effects, but with the new system for drug delivery system –the nanoparticles –this problem could be avoided. Nanoparticles are very small particles from 1 to 100 nm with different shapes and sizes made of variety of materials .Nanoparticles have many applications in different aspects especially medicine including therapy and diagnosis.
Cancer disease is one the most complicated fatal disease which scientists are looking for methods to either stop or cure this malady (Hook, Ptak, Farrell, Hinkal, Panaro and Grodzinski, 2010). Based on the cancer overlook disease, the cells are transformed and infected to cancer after a while and it starts to metastasize and proliferate (ibid). The cardinal issue is that how cancer may occur based on transformation of cells and genes. To illustrate that question, there are two factors that must be carried out together preemptory; one is cell replication and gene mutation and both of which results in programmed cell death, apoptosis. (Mansoori, Mohazzabi, McCormack, and Jabbari, 2007). Veraciously, apoptosis will likely to happen when the healthy cells could not be repaired and the errors stay put on the cells (ibid). The stimuli of this kind of cells behavior still debatable (Hook et al, 2010), yet there are some explanation that how it started by a virus infection which is not going to be discuss in this paper. Nevertheless, there are multifarious techniques for cancer treatment clinically, one of the significant promising methods to struggle inhibition or prognosis of cancer is nanotechnology.
Reducing toxicity of therapeutic materials is the main aim of developing drug-delivery systems that is achieved using CNTs.1, 2 The intense interest in CNTs is due to the capability of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of medicinal molecules and their unique chemical and physical properties and potential applications from high strength and low weight nanocomposite materials to electronic devices. Drug molecule penetrate through the cancer cell by CNT to treat diseases and thereby potentially reducing the drug side effects by preserving the non-targeted tissues of the patients.3-5 The
In the past two decades, the use of nanoparticles, such as liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles, to deliver drugs into the human body has revolutionized the medical field. The advantages of nanoparticle drug delivery system include the drug’s longer circulation half-life, reduced side effects and improved pharmacokinetics.5 As a result, the emergence of a new field of medicine called nanomedicine is being vastly researched and studied to advance clinical therapeutics. Currently, nanomedicine field involve the use of nanotechnology for drug delivery vehicle, biosensoring, bioimaging and tissue engineering. For example, photodynamic therapy destroys the cancerous tissue by changing a drug’s chemistry with the use of an external energy source, usually a