Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )

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Posttraumatic Growth in Relation to Resilience Trauma is common but not all survivors experience posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD). In the National Comorbidity Survey, trauma exposure rates exceeded 50%, yet lifetime PTSD was estimated at 7.8% (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes, & Nelson,1995). These findings have been replicated and found to be consistent suggesting that most people exposed to trauma can retain a stable equilibrium without reactive psychopathology (Bonanno, 2004; Bonanno,Galea, Bucciarelli, & Vlahov, 2006). Some researcher convey this phenomena as resilience, which is an individual 's successful adaptation to trauma (Wang et al. 2010), suggesting that resilient people have the ability to adjust and cope successfully in …show more content…

What Science Tells Us Resilience as a Trait Researcher define resilience as a broad cluster of personal characteristics that facilitate the ability to manage despite trauma. These characteristics include hardiness, optimism, self-enhancement, repressive coping, positive affect, and a sense of coherence (Agaibi & Wilson,2005; Bonanno, 2004; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004). Collectively, these characteristics permit such people to emerge from trauma with less psychological wounds and relatively unchanged. Resilience has been defined at least by three ways (Lepore & Revenson, 2006) that include: recovery, resistance and reconfiguration. An element of resilience is hardiness refers to resistance to change in following adversity and the commitment for future stable emotional responses to obtain a sense of achievement given similar traumatic events (Benight & Bandura, 2004). Another component of resilience is self-esteem. High self-esteem is associated with high confidence, tools and skills for coping with the changes. A third component is suppressed overall response tendency to avoid thoughts, unpleasant emotions and memories associated with the traumatic event. The first two components – hardiness and self-esteem are related to cognitive processes. In contrast, the third component – a suppressed response – is related to the limbic system associated with emotions (Bonanno, 2005). If so, the quality of resilience refers to a cognitive-emotional trait before experiencing trauma,

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