Posttraumatic Growth in Relation to Resilience Trauma is common but not all survivors experience posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD). In the National Comorbidity Survey, trauma exposure rates exceeded 50%, yet lifetime PTSD was estimated at 7.8% (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes, & Nelson,1995). These ﬁndings have been replicated and found to be consistent suggesting that most people exposed to trauma can retain a stable equilibrium without reactive psychopathology (Bonanno, 2004; Bonanno,Galea, Bucciarelli, & Vlahov, 2006). Some researcher convey this phenomena as resilience, which is an individual 's successful adaptation to trauma (Wang et al. 2010), suggesting that resilient people have the ability to adjust and cope successfully in …show more content…
What Science Tells Us Resilience as a Trait Researcher define resilience as a broad cluster of personal characteristics that facilitate the ability to manage despite trauma. These characteristics include hardiness, optimism, self-enhancement, repressive coping, positive affect, and a sense of coherence (Agaibi & Wilson,2005; Bonanno, 2004; Tedeschi & Calhoun, 2004). Collectively, these characteristics permit such people to emerge from trauma with less psychological wounds and relatively unchanged. Resilience has been defined at least by three ways (Lepore & Revenson, 2006) that include: recovery, resistance and reconfiguration. An element of resilience is hardiness refers to resistance to change in following adversity and the commitment for future stable emotional responses to obtain a sense of achievement given similar traumatic events (Benight & Bandura, 2004). Another component of resilience is self-esteem. High self-esteem is associated with high confidence, tools and skills for coping with the changes. A third component is suppressed overall response tendency to avoid thoughts, unpleasant emotions and memories associated with the traumatic event. The first two components – hardiness and self-esteem are related to cognitive processes. In contrast, the third component – a suppressed response – is related to the limbic system associated with emotions (Bonanno, 2005). If so, the quality of resilience refers to a cognitive-emotional trait before experiencing trauma,
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An individual with a strong social support before and after the traumatic event is likely to have a positive adjustment after the trauma than an individual who has a poor connection and attachment with their social circle. Some studies on heritability of the disorder shows a small hereditary component that predisposes a person to the disorder contributes to increase their probability of exposure to trauma. “For example a hereditary deficit in problem-solving capacity may contribute to higher levels of exposure to potentially traumatic stressors and lower levels of resources to promote recovery following exposure” (Reyes, Elhai, & Ford, p. 259).
David’s resilience is viewed both positively and negatively for various reasons. To come to a conclusion Bosworth first clarifies that resiliency is not a trait, but a process that occurs when individuals are interacting in their environments (Bosworth, 703). Also resiliency is not relevant without adversity, and the concept of it is tied to normative judgments. He then describes the difference between resiliency and recovery because many people tend to think the terms are interchangeable. Resiliency in adults, means that they are able to live functional lives despite having experienced a trauma, this does not mean they have emotionally recovered from said event.
Resilience is about how an individual deals, resists, recovers and learns from adversity’s in life. If a child is resilient they are less likely to be damaged as a result of negative experiences and are more likely to learn from and move on. In order for a child to be resilient they need to believe in themselves and have others they can rely on in their lives.
Resilience is the power or the ability to return to the original form. “Resilience is born by grounding yourself in your own loveliness, hitting notes you thought were way out of your range” (94). Father Gregory Boyle says this because he knows that resilience is needed in order to change. Resilience is important because we can become better people by doing things, we thought we couldn’t do. In the book, Tattoos on the Heart, The Power of Boundless Compassion, Boyle claims resilience is essential in our lives because it is the key to do better.
In an effort to understand how resilience influences mental health positively, research has found that while facing difficult situations, resilient individuals rely on various individual, social and contextual factors that neutralise or mitigate stressful situations (Hjemdal, 2007; Vanderbilt-Adriance & Shaw, 2008; Zolkoski & Bullock, 2012). Thus, the positive relationship between resilience and mental health could be attributed to the association between positive experiences and risk factors in individuals (Stewart, Reid & Mangham, 1997). Accordingly, it may be predicted that if the factors increasing the possibility of incompatible outcomes are outnumbered by the protective factors, then, this may be an indication of the individual displaying
Fourgere stated, “Resilience is one of purported protective factor that has been highlighted as being of potential importance.” This was stated in regards of some protective factors that are involved with risk factors in offenders. Protective factors are those supposedly known to relate to positive outcomes. Protective factors are those conditions or attributes such as skills, strength, resources, supports, or coping strategies in individuals, families, communities or larger societies that help people deal more effectively with stressful events and mitigate or eliminate risk in families and communities. Resilience is the capacity to recover quick from difficulties. This is a trait or characteristic that has been thought to keep some young offenders from reoffending, Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for Violence Risk, and Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability are some risk assessment tools that related to resilience. Resilience has been identified as both a personal quality or characteristic, as well as a means of coping. Forensics concluded resilience being a trait, a quality that makes one person different from another, or a characteristic, a special quality or trait that makes a person thing, or group different from others. Both defined show a few similarities but remained distinct depending solely on the individual and their circumstances.
Anybody can experience trauma, whether it’s a man, a woman, or even a child. In fact, over half of the population is expected to experience trauma at least once in their lifetimes. However, everyone will respond to trauma in their own, unique, way, making it difficult to properly equip people with the tools needed to heal from trauma in the event they experience it. Whereas the responses a person and his or her body will have in the event of heart attack have been narrowed down to a small list, and can easily be conveyed to the public through general guidelines or PSAs, the responses a person will have to trauma can range anywhere from shrugging it off to suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This is why the role of mental health professionals, such as therapists, is crucial in regards to helping sufferers of trauma. These professionals are specially trained to be capable of identifying and understanding the responses a person is having to a traumatic experience, as well as the optimal ways to go about the healing process. In Daniel Gilbert’s Stumbling on Happiness, specifically the chapter titled “Immune to Reality,” he analyzes what he calls the psychological immune system, a defence mechanism of the psyche which plays a prominent role in how a person will respond in the event of trauma. While Gilbert outlines the mechanisms that cause people to respond to trauma in the way that they do, Dana Becker, author of One Nation Under Stress, looks at the actual
Stress, trauma, and more specifically Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a nursing concept well studied and is applicable to various professions. Concepts are the basic building blocks in theory construction (Walker &Avant, 2011, p. 157). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that results from exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence (APA, 2013, p. 143). The response to the traumatic experience can be fear, helplessness, or horror. The concept is used in ever changing ways to categorize the responses of many people to diverse events. The concept of PTSD can be described as; dynamic, fuzzy, context-dependent, of pragmatic utility, and constantly changing (Symes, 1995, p.195). Rodgers (1993) emphasized that the words used for a concept are not the concept itself but are the manifestation of the mental cluster of the people using the concept. Concepts are not carved in stone, and therefore change overtime; the understanding of the concept my also change. While the concept itself has been studied, there are also analysis literature reviews. An analysis is useful when concepts, statements, or theories are already present in the literature but the theorist wishes to understand them better by taking them apart, examining the parts, and putting them all back together again (Walker & Avant, 2011, p. 155). Like diagnoses, one of the primary functions of a concept is to categorize. Concept analysis is a rather good
“Resiliency can be increased when the individual has social support, a positive relationship with a parent, high intelligence, and high self-esteem” (Hutchison, et al., 2013). Dr. Williams states that the factors that can increase and support resiliency are, “parental support, hope, expectation, level of optimism, socioeconomic status, and parental education” (Williams, Resiliency Lecture). Although Dr. Williams primary focus was on sexual abuse victims, her research on resilience can be applied loosely to other areas as well. Looking at the different resources on resiliency, I found that they all list similar factors for supporting and building resiliency. Williams and Nelson-Gardell and the Resiliency in Action website, all agree on the fact that supportive and positive relationships that help to build resiliency don't have to be a parent, another family or community member can have the same impact. The common theme I keep seeing in these resources from module 5 is establishing support systems. A support system can be developed at work, at school, with family or just in the community. No matter how you intend to go about it, building your resilience is essential for your mental
Psychological consequences of a traumatic events will be the target of this literature review. An event that causes an individual to feel as though their life is being threatened or is at risk of great harm can be a direct result of traumatic experience. Often these experiences correlate with the emotions of feeling helpless, and terrified, both in which can lead towards post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Sherin & Nemeroff, 2011). According to Breslau & Kessler (2001) approximately 80% of individuals have been exposed to at least one traumatic event in their lifetime (p. #); often traumatic events include divorce, natural disasters, violence of war, as well as domestic violence.
It is important to note that these resilient individuals, experience some emotional pains, and almost all participants reported intrusive cognition at some point early after a loss of a love or someone close in their lives. It is stated in the article, vast majority of individuals exposed to violent or life-threatening events do not go on to develop the disorder has not received adequate attention. How to require resilience is a big question? For example, hardiness consists of three concepts: finding meaningful purpose in life, the idea that one can influence one’s surroundings and the outcome of events, a person can learn and grow from both positive and negative life experiences. Hardy individuals have been found to appraise stressful situations as less threatening, thus minimizing the experience of distress. Individuals identified as depressors tend to avoid unpleasant thoughts, emotions, and memories. In contrast to hardiness, repressive coping appears to function primarily through emotion focused mechanisms. Positive emotion and laughter plays a big factor in
Research in this field has originated in two fields of traumatology (looking at adults) and developmental psychology (looking at children and youth). Early researches with adults mainly focused on identifying what led some individuals to avoid traumatic stress whereas in developmental psychology, researchers aimed to identify personal qualities, as self-esteem, differentiating children who had adapted positively to socioeconomic nuisance, abuse or neglect and tragic life events, from children showing comparatively poorer outcomes (Luthar, Cicchetti and Becker, 2000). However, the root of research in resilience shows some limitations to the early approaches.
Those who physically survive trauma begin to recover even as its full horror is still registering. In our struggle to survive, man adapts to seemingly impossible circumstances. Adaptation stems from our attempts to survive and to heal in the midst of our suffering. These adaptations frequently carry both benefits and costs to the individual and to society. Trauma is about devastation and resilience. The most damaged survivor may demonstrate strength that surpasses our expectations. Increasingly, there has emerged the need for a theory of self that explicitly addresses the impact of trauma on self-development. An individual's response to trauma is contextualized by the dynamics of perception, cognition, and affective processing, which include
Building resilience is an important step to help you deal with and overcome trauma, but how is that accomplished? Having a strong faith in God is the solid foundation needed to have a strong resilience. Another key component to building resiliency, is “emotional disclosure.” According to Hemenover (2003), by talking about the trauma-causing event, people can reduce the amount of stress caused by that event. His
Without a doubt having taken this course has opened my eyes to the subject of trauma and its effects in ways that I would never have conceived in my limited exposure to this area of study. I can say, that it is the study of trauma and its many faceted dimensions that have perked up my ears at times such as when the mention of the term on the T.V. brings me to tune in to hear what the latest event or discussion surrounding a specific take on violence and its trauma related after probing. My reflection on my emotional reactions to certain KB’s is that at the heart of the topic of trauma are various nuisances. I am looking at my journey as I go through the course, and I am personally affected by resilience as a factor of people’s lives. I was struck by this because the idea was not one which comes to my attention when thinking of trauma. What comes to mind is what takes place at the time of a traumatic event and the recovery aspect of it. The varied aspects of family history and resilience never entered the conversation about trauma which I carried on with myself. But after looking at the need for victims of traumatic events such as a mass shooting to get better after a traumatic event, it is reiterated over and over by research of well documented studies as to how a person’s recovery progresses will depend on what resilience mechanisms have been laid down in their childhood for a given individual.